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Special Issue "Energetic Materials and Processes"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Alexey Kondyurin

Applied and Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The special issue on Energetic Materials and Processes brings together scientists from many countries working in universities, research institutes, government laboratories and private industry to discuss state-of-the-art research on new materials and processes for different applications. The main topics of the issue include synthesis of new materials, performance, advanced diagnostics, experimental techniques, theoretical approaches, and computational models for simulating the behaviour of energetic materials under a wide variety of conditions. The issue is a platform for presenting cutting edge fundamental research in chemistry and physics of materials and processes associated with fast chemical processes, frontal high energy reactions, supersonic reactions, ageing, thermal decomposition and mechanical damage of energetics, as well as utilisation and safety of energetic materials, new materials for anti-terroristic activity, new materials for space transportation systems, new technologies of energetic materials in medicine, forensic, mining and civil engineering.

Materials (ISSN 1996-1944) is an Open Access journal of materials science. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The journal is indexed by SCIE, EI, Scopus, and gets high visibility. The 2016 impact factor is 2.654.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Alexey Kondyurin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energetic materials

  • reactive materials

  • synthesis

  • structure

  • processes

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Excess Co on the Phase Composition and Thermoelectric Properties of Half-Heusler NbCoSb
Materials 2018, 11(5), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050773
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
NbCoSb with nominal 19 valence electrons, and is supposed to be metallic, has recently been reported to also exhibit the thermoelectric properties of a heavily doped n-type semiconductor. In this study, we prepared Co-rich NbCo1+xSb samples (x = 0,
[...] Read more.
NbCoSb with nominal 19 valence electrons, and is supposed to be metallic, has recently been reported to also exhibit the thermoelectric properties of a heavily doped n-type semiconductor. In this study, we prepared Co-rich NbCo1+xSb samples (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5), and their phase compositions, microstructures and thermoelectric properties were investigated. The Seebeck coefficient increased a great deal with increasing x, due to decreasing carrier concentration, and the total thermal conductivity reduced mainly because of declining κe. Finally, a peak thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, was about 0.46 for NbCo1.3Sb at 973 K. This enhancement was mainly attributed to the reduction of electric thermal conductivity and the increase of Seebeck coefficient. The excess Co had effects on the carrier concentration, deformation potential Edef and DOS effective mass m*. Adding an excessive amount of Co leads to a very high Edef, which was detrimental for transport characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation
Materials 2018, 11(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050657
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 22 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical
[...] Read more.
Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of “Ravine-Like” BCN Compounds with High Capacitance
Materials 2018, 11(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020209
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of “ravine-like” boron carbonitrides (abbreviation: BCN) were synthesized by a green precursor pyrolysis method at different temperatures (about 700–1100 °C). The highest electrochemical performance of BCN-800 (Named BCN-temperature) electrode was observed, because the “ravine-like” structure can significantly increase the contact area
[...] Read more.
A series of “ravine-like” boron carbonitrides (abbreviation: BCN) were synthesized by a green precursor pyrolysis method at different temperatures (about 700–1100 °C). The highest electrochemical performance of BCN-800 (Named BCN-temperature) electrode was observed, because the “ravine-like” structure can significantly increase the contact area and improve the wettability between electrode and electrolyte. The BCN electrode exhibited ultrahigh specific capacitance 805.9 F/g (at a current density of 0.2 A/g), excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability (91%) after 3000 cycles at a current density of 8 A/g, showing high potential applications in supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Dielectric, Piezoelectric, and Vibration Properties of the LiF-Doped (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.93Sn0.07)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic Sheets
Materials 2018, 11(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020182
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
By the conventional solid state reaction method, a small amount of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as the sintering promoter to improve the sintering and piezoelectric characteristics of (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.93Sn0.07)O3 (BCTS) lead-free piezoceramic sheets. Using
[...] Read more.
By the conventional solid state reaction method, a small amount of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as the sintering promoter to improve the sintering and piezoelectric characteristics of (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.93Sn0.07)O3 (BCTS) lead-free piezoceramic sheets. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the inferences of the crystalline and surface microstructures were obtained and analyzed. Then, the impedance analyzer and d33-meter were used to measure the dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics. In this study, the optimum sintering temperature of the BCTS sheets decreased from 1450 °C to 1390 °C due to LiF doping. For the 0.07 wt % LiF-doped BCTS sheets sintered at 1390 °C, the piezoelectric constant (d33) is 413 pC/N, the electric–mechanical coupling coefficient (kp) is 47.5%, the dielectric loss (tan δ) is 3.9%, and the dielectric constant (εr) is 8100, which are all close to or even better than that of the pure undoped BCTS ceramics. The Curie temperature also improved, from 85 °C for pure BCTS to 140 °C for BCTS–0.07 LiF sheets. Furthermore, by using the vibration system and fixing 1.5 g tip mass at the end of the sheets, as the vibration frequency is 20 Hz, the proposed piezoelectric ceramic sheets also reveal a good energy harvesting performance at the maximum output peak voltage of 4.6 V, which is large enough and can be applied in modern low-power electronic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Sugarcane Bagasse and Soft Wood Cellulose
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10111246
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The properties of untreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and soft wood (SW) and their respective celluloses were investigated. The celluloses indicated improved crystallinity index values and decreased concentration of lignin and hemicellulose compared to their untreated counterparts. Three degradation models, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa
[...] Read more.
The properties of untreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and soft wood (SW) and their respective celluloses were investigated. The celluloses indicated improved crystallinity index values and decreased concentration of lignin and hemicellulose compared to their untreated counterparts. Three degradation models, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (OFW), and Kissinger (KGR) methods were employed to determine apparent activation energy values. Generally, the thermal degradation processes of both sugarcane bagasse and soft wood included dehydration, degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose, whereas the lignin degraded from the degradation temperature of hemicellulose to the end of the cellulose. The apparent activation energy values obtained from the OFW and KAS models vary with the degree of conversion, and showed similar trends. The activation energies obtained by KGR were relatively lower than those obtained from the KAS and OFW methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Precipitate Evolution on Austenite Grain Growth in RAFM Steel
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10091017
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM)
[...] Read more.
To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the M23C6 and MX precipitates gradually coarsen and dissolve into the matrix as the austenitizing temperatures increase. The M23C6 precipitates dissolve completely at 1100 °C, while the MX precipitates dissolve completely at 1200 °C. The evolution of two types of precipitate has a significant effect on the size of austenite. Based on the Zener pinning model, the effect of precipitate evolution on austenite grain size is quantified. It was found that the coarsening and dissolution of M23C6 and MX precipitates leads to a decrease in pinning pressure on grain boundaries, facilitating the rapid growth of austenite grains. The austenite phase fraction is also affected by the coarsening and dissolution of precipitates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Cycleability of Amorphous MnO2 by Covering on α-MnO2 Needles in an Electrochemical Capacitor
Materials 2017, 10(9), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10090988
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An allomorph MnO2@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure was developed via a two-step aqueous reaction method. The data analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms experiments indicated that this unique architecture consisted of a porous
[...] Read more.
An allomorph MnO2@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure was developed via a two-step aqueous reaction method. The data analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms experiments indicated that this unique architecture consisted of a porous layer of amorphous-MnO2 nano-sheets which were well grown onto the surface of α-MnO2 nano-needles. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the double-layer charging and Faradaic pseudo-capacity of the MnO2@MnO2 capacitor electrode contributed to a specific capacitance of 150.3 F·g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A·g−1. Long cycle life experiments on the as-prepared MnO2@MnO2 sample showed nearly a 99.3% retention after 5000 cycles at a current density of 2 A·g−1. This retention value was found to be significantly higher than those reported for amorphous MnO2-based capacitor electrodes. It was also found that the remarkable cycleability of the MnO2@MnO2 was due to the supporting role of α-MnO2 nano-needle core and the outer amorphous MnO2 layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) with Reduced Sensitivity
Materials 2017, 10(8), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080974
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The internal defects and shape of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystal are critical parameters for the preparation of reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX). In the current study, RDX was re-crystallized and spheroidized to form the high-quality RDX that was further characterized by purity, apparent density, size
[...] Read more.
The internal defects and shape of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystal are critical parameters for the preparation of reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX). In the current study, RDX was re-crystallized and spheroidized to form the high-quality RDX that was further characterized by purity, apparent density, size distribution, specific surface area, impact sensitivity, and shock sensitivity. The effects of re-crystallization solvent on the growth morphology of RDX crystal were investigated by both theoretical simulation and experiment test, and consistent results were obtained. The high-quality RDX exhibited a high purity (≥99.90%), high apparent density (≥1.811 g/cm3), spherical shape, and relatively low impact sensitivity (6%). Its specific surface area was reduced more than 30%. Compared with conventional RDXs, the high-quality RDX reduced the shock sensitivities of PBXN-109 and PBXW-115 by more than 30%, indicating that it was a RS-RDX. The reduced sensitivity and good processability of the high-quality RDX would be significant in improving the performances of RDX-based PBXs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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