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Special Issue "Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Barbara D. Boyan

Wallace H. Coulter Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0363, USA
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Fax: +1 404 894 2291

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle On the Effects of Hot Forging and Hot Rolling on the Microstructural Development and Mechanical Response of a Biocompatible Ti Alloy
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1439-1461; doi:10.3390/ma5081439
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zr, Nb, and Ta as alloying elements for Ti alloys are important for attaining superior corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in the long term. However, note that the addition of excess Nb and Ta to Ti alloys leads to higher manufacturing cost. To develop
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Zr, Nb, and Ta as alloying elements for Ti alloys are important for attaining superior corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in the long term. However, note that the addition of excess Nb and Ta to Ti alloys leads to higher manufacturing cost. To develop low-cost manufacturing processes, the effects of hot-forging and continuous-hot-rolling conditions on the microstructure, mechanical properties, hot forgeability, and fatigue strength of Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy were investigated. The temperature dependences with a temperature difference (ΔT) from β-transus temperature (Tβ) for the volume fraction of the α- and β-phases were almost the same for both Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In the α-β-forged Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy, a fine granular α-phase structure containing a fine granular β-phase at grain boundaries of an equiaxed α-phase was observed. The Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy billet forged at Tβ-(30 to 50) °C exhibited high strength and excellent ductility. The effects of forging ratio on mechanical strength and ductility were small at a forging ratio of more than 3. The maximum strength (σmax) markedly increased with decreasing testing temperature below Tβ. The reduction in area (R.A.) value slowly decreased with decreasing testing temperature below Tβ. The temperature dependences of σmax for the Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta and Ti-6Al-4V alloys show the same tendency and might be caused by the temperature difference (ΔT) from Tβ. It was clarified that Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy could be manufactured using the same manufacturing process as for previously approved Ti-6Al-4V alloy, taking into account the difference (ΔT) between Tβ and heat treatment temperature. Also, the manufacturing equivalency of Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy to obtain marketing approval of implants was established. Thus, it was concluded that continuous hot rolling is useful for manufacturing α-β-type Ti alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Structural Design on Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response of Additive Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1336-1347; doi:10.3390/ma5081336
Received: 7 May 2012 / Revised: 29 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (2447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Restoration of segmental defects in long bones remains a challenging task in orthopedic surgery. Although autologous bone is still the ‘Gold Standard’ because of its high biocompatibility, it has nevertheless been associated with several disadvantages. Consequently, artificial materials, such as calcium phosphate and
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Restoration of segmental defects in long bones remains a challenging task in orthopedic surgery. Although autologous bone is still the ‘Gold Standard’ because of its high biocompatibility, it has nevertheless been associated with several disadvantages. Consequently, artificial materials, such as calcium phosphate and titanium, have been considered for the treatment of bone defects. In the present study, the mechanical properties of three different scaffold designs were investigated. The scaffolds were made of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), fabricated by means of an additive manufacturing process with defined pore geometry and porosities of approximately 70%. Two scaffolds exhibited rectangular struts, orientated in the direction of loading. The struts for the third scaffold were orientated diagonal to the load direction, and featured a circular cross-section. Material properties were calculated from stress-strain relationships under axial compression testing. In vitro cell testing was undertaken with human osteoblasts on scaffolds fabricated using the same manufacturing process. Although the scaffolds exhibited different strut geometry, the mechanical properties of ultimate compressive strength were similar (145–164 MPa) and in the range of human cortical bone. Test results for elastic modulus revealed values between 3.7 and 6.7 GPa. In vitro testing demonstrated proliferation and spreading of bone cells on the scaffold surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V
Materials 2012, 5(7), 1206-1218; doi:10.3390/ma5071206
Received: 23 May 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), matrix
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The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons) and triacontanoic (30 carbons) acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)
Open AccessArticle Automatic Actin Filament Quantification of Osteoblasts and Their Morphometric Analysis on Microtextured Silicon-Titanium Arrays
Materials 2012, 5(7), 1176-1195; doi:10.3390/ma5071176
Received: 25 April 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 18 June 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microtexturing of implant surfaces is of major relevance in the endeavor to improve biorelevant implant designs. In order to elucidate the role of biomaterial’s topography on cell physiology, obtaining quantitative correlations between cellular behavior and distinct microarchitectural properties is in great demand. Until
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Microtexturing of implant surfaces is of major relevance in the endeavor to improve biorelevant implant designs. In order to elucidate the role of biomaterial’s topography on cell physiology, obtaining quantitative correlations between cellular behavior and distinct microarchitectural properties is in great demand. Until now, the microscopically observed reorganization of the cytoskeleton on structured biomaterials has been difficult to convert into data. We used geometrically microtextured silicon-titanium arrays as a model system. Samples were prepared by deep reactive-ion etching of silicon wafers, resulting in rectangular grooves (width and height: 2 µm) and cubic pillars (pillar dimensions: 2 × 2 × 5 and 5 × 5 × 5 µm); finally sputter-coated with 100 nm titanium. We focused on the morphometric analysis of MG-63 osteoblasts, including a quantification of the actin cytoskeleton. By means of our novel software FilaQuant, especially developed for automatic actin filament recognition, we were first able to quantify the alterations of the actin network dependent on the microtexture of a material surface. The cells’ actin fibers were significantly reduced in length on the pillared surfaces versus the grooved array (4–5 fold) and completely reorganized on the micropillars, but without altering the orientation of cells. Our morpho-functional approach opens new possibilities for the data correlation of cell-material interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1776-1792; doi:10.3390/ma4101776
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 October 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (3573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study characterized properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (extra low interstitial, ASTM grade 23) specimens fabricated by a laser beam melting (LBM) and an electron beam melting (EBM) system for dental applications. Titanium alloy specimens were made into required size and shape for each
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This study characterized properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (extra low interstitial, ASTM grade 23) specimens fabricated by a laser beam melting (LBM) and an electron beam melting (EBM) system for dental applications. Titanium alloy specimens were made into required size and shape for each standard test using fabrication methods. The LBM specimens were made by an LBM machine utilizing 20 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder. Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens were also fabricated by an EBM using 40 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder (average diameter, 40 µm: Arcam ABÒ) in a vacuum. As a control, cast Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens (Cast) were made using a centrifugal casting machine in an MgO-based mold. Also, a wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Wrought) was used as a control. The mechanical properties, corrosion properties and grindability (wear properties) were evaluated and data was analyzed using ANOVA and a non-parametric method (α = 0.05). The strength of the LBM and wrought specimens were similar, whereas the EBM specimens were slightly lower than those two specimens. The hardness of both the LBM and EBM specimens was similar and slightly higher than that of the cast and wrought alloys. For the higher grindability speed at 1,250 m/min, the volume loss of Ti64 LBM and EBM showed no significant differences among all the fabrication methods. LBM and EBM exhibited favorable results in fabricating dental appliances with excellent properties as found for specimens made by other fabricating methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)

Review

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Open AccessReview Titanium as a Reconstruction and Implant Material in Dentistry: Advantages and Pitfalls
Materials 2012, 5(9), 1528-1545; doi:10.3390/ma5091528
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 11 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercial pure titanium (cpTi) has been the material of choice in several disciplines of dentistry due to its biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. Despite a number of favorable characteristics, cpTi as a reconstruction and oral implant material has several shortcomings. This
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Commercial pure titanium (cpTi) has been the material of choice in several disciplines of dentistry due to its biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. Despite a number of favorable characteristics, cpTi as a reconstruction and oral implant material has several shortcomings. This paper highlights current knowledge on material properties, passive oxidation film formation, corrosion, surface activation, cell interactions, biofilm development, allergy, casting and machining properties of cpTi for better understanding and potential improvement of this material for its clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)
Open AccessReview A Review of Titanium Zirconium (TiZr) Alloys for Use in Endosseous Dental Implants
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1348-1360; doi:10.3390/ma5081348
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 22 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental implants made from binary titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloys have shown promise as a high strength, yet biocompatible alternative to pure titanium, particularly for applications requiring small diameter implants. The aim of this review is to summarize existing literature reporting on the use of
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Dental implants made from binary titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloys have shown promise as a high strength, yet biocompatible alternative to pure titanium, particularly for applications requiring small diameter implants. The aim of this review is to summarize existing literature reporting on the use of binary TiZr alloys for endosseous dental implant applications as tested in vitro, in animals and clinically. And furthermore to show that TiZr is “at least as good as” pure titanium in terms of biocompatibility and osseointergration. From the twelve papers that met the inclusion criteria, the current literature confirms that TiZr alloys produce small diameter implants with a strength up to 40% higher than conventional, cold-worked, grade IV titanium implants, and with a corrosion resistance and biocompatibility that is at least as good as pure titanium. The surface structure of TiZr is compatible with established surface treatments proven to aid in the osseointegration of titanium implants. Furthermore, binary TiZr alloys have been shown to achieve good osseointegration and high success rates both in animal and in clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Materials for Biomedical Application)

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