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The Effect of Structural Design on Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response of Additive Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds
Department of Orthopedics, University Medicine Rostock, Doberaner Strasse 142, Rostock 18057, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 29 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Abstract: Restoration of segmental defects in long bones remains a challenging task in orthopedic surgery. Although autologous bone is still the ‘Gold Standard’ because of its high biocompatibility, it has nevertheless been associated with several disadvantages. Consequently, artificial materials, such as calcium phosphate and titanium, have been considered for the treatment of bone defects. In the present study, the mechanical properties of three different scaffold designs were investigated. The scaffolds were made of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), fabricated by means of an additive manufacturing process with defined pore geometry and porosities of approximately 70%. Two scaffolds exhibited rectangular struts, orientated in the direction of loading. The struts for the third scaffold were orientated diagonal to the load direction, and featured a circular cross-section. Material properties were calculated from stress-strain relationships under axial compression testing. In vitro cell testing was undertaken with human osteoblasts on scaffolds fabricated using the same manufacturing process. Although the scaffolds exhibited different strut geometry, the mechanical properties of ultimate compressive strength were similar (145–164 MPa) and in the range of human cortical bone. Test results for elastic modulus revealed values between 3.7 and 6.7 GPa. In vitro testing demonstrated proliferation and spreading of bone cells on the scaffold surface.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; titanium; bone scaffold; mechanical properties; compressive strength; elastic modulus; in vitro; human osteoblasts
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wieding, J.; Jonitz, A.; Bader, R. The Effect of Structural Design on Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response of Additive Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds. Materials 2012, 5, 1336-1347.
Wieding J, Jonitz A, Bader R. The Effect of Structural Design on Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response of Additive Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds. Materials. 2012; 5(8):1336-1347.
Wieding, Jan; Jonitz, Anika; Bader, Rainer. 2012. "The Effect of Structural Design on Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response of Additive Manufactured Titanium Scaffolds." Materials 5, no. 8: 1336-1347.