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Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting
Department of Biomaterials Science, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246, USA
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2011; in revised form: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 October 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Abstract: This study characterized properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (extra low interstitial, ASTM grade 23) specimens fabricated by a laser beam melting (LBM) and an electron beam melting (EBM) system for dental applications. Titanium alloy specimens were made into required size and shape for each standard test using fabrication methods. The LBM specimens were made by an LBM machine utilizing 20 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder. Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens were also fabricated by an EBM using 40 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder (average diameter, 40 µm: Arcam ABÒ) in a vacuum. As a control, cast Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens (Cast) were made using a centrifugal casting machine in an MgO-based mold. Also, a wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Wrought) was used as a control. The mechanical properties, corrosion properties and grindability (wear properties) were evaluated and data was analyzed using ANOVA and a non-parametric method (α = 0.05). The strength of the LBM and wrought specimens were similar, whereas the EBM specimens were slightly lower than those two specimens. The hardness of both the LBM and EBM specimens was similar and slightly higher than that of the cast and wrought alloys. For the higher grindability speed at 1,250 m/min, the volume loss of Ti64 LBM and EBM showed no significant differences among all the fabrication methods. LBM and EBM exhibited favorable results in fabricating dental appliances with excellent properties as found for specimens made by other fabricating methods.
Keywords: rapid prototyping; titanium alloy; mechanical properties; grindability; corrosion behavior; dental applications
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MDPI and ACS Style
Koike, M.; Greer, P.; Owen, K.; Lilly, G.; Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Martinez, E.; Okabe, T. Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting. Materials 2011, 4, 1776-1792.
Koike M, Greer P, Owen K, Lilly G, Murr LE, Gaytan SM, Martinez E, Okabe T. Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting. Materials. 2011; 4(10):1776-1792.
Koike, Mari; Greer, Preston; Owen, Kelly; Lilly, Guo; Murr, Lawrence E.; Gaytan, Sara M.; Martinez, Edwin; Okabe, Toru. 2011. "Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting." Materials 4, no. 10: 1776-1792.