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Special Issue "Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Soshu Kirihara

Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-6-6879-8693
Interests: additive manufacturing; stereolithography; photonic crystal; bioceramic implant; energy harvesting; materials tectonics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonic crystals as a main theme in this Special Issue are investigated to achieve spatial modulation of electromagnetic waves.

Artificial lattices with periodic arrangements of dielectric or magnetic materials exhibit bandgaps in their electromagnetic transmission spectra through Bragg diffraction. Microwave radiation or visible light is perfectly reflected at wavelength ranges of the order of that of these periodic patterns, which are typically of micrometer or nanometer scale. Structural defects with point, line, and plane shapes can be introduced to strongly resonate and selectively transmit electromagnetic waves. At the specific wavelengths, corresponding to cavity sizes, amplified standing waves can create localized modes and transmission peaks in the photonic bandgaps.

Efficient resonators or integrated circuits have been fabricated using newly-developed energy beam lithography and additive manufacturing technologies. In contemporary photonic crystal technology, multiple resonances and coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves are used in the inner or outer components of chemical and biological sensors to rapidly detect indivisible liquid or gaseous material.

As a Guest Editor, it gives me immense pleasure to invite you to submit manuscripts for this Special Issue entitled, “Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing.”

Prof. Soshu Kirihara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photonic crystal design
  • localized mode simulation
  • periodic structure fabrication
  • electromagnetic evaluation
  • sensing device
  • modular structure

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Ethanol Evaporation on Free-Standing Porous Silicon Photonic Microcavities
Materials 2018, 11(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060894
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we have followed ethanol evaporation at two different concentrations using a fiber optic spectrometer and a screen capture application with a resolving capacity of 10 ms. The transmission spectra are measured in the visible-near-infrared range with a resolution of 0.5
[...] Read more.
In this work, we have followed ethanol evaporation at two different concentrations using a fiber optic spectrometer and a screen capture application with a resolving capacity of 10 ms. The transmission spectra are measured in the visible-near-infrared range with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Porous Silicon microcavities were fabricated by electrochemistry etching of crystalline silicon. The microcavities were designed to have a localized mode at 472 nm (blue band). Ethanol infiltration produces a redshift of approximately 17 nm. After a few minutes, a phase change from liquid to vapor occurs and the localized wavelength shifts back to the blue band. This process happens in a time window of only 60 ms. Our results indicate a difference between two distinct ethanol concentrations (70% and 35%). For the lower ethanol concentration, the blue shift rate process is slower in the first 30 ms and then it equals the high ethanol concentration blue shift rate. We have repeated the same process, but in an extended mode (750 nm), and have obtained similar results. Our results show that these photonic structures and with the spectroscopic technique used here can be implemented as a sensor with sufficient sensitivity and selectivity. Finally, since the photonic structure is a membrane, it can also be used as a transducer. For instance, by placing this photonic structure on top of a fast photodetector whose photo-response lies within the same bandwidth, the optical response can be transferred to an electrical signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of the External Signal Modulation Waveform and Frequency on the Performance of a Photonic Forced Oscillator
Materials 2018, 11(5), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050854
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Photonic crystals have been an object of interest because of their properties to inhibit certain wavelengths and allow the transmission of others. Using these properties, we designed a photonic structure known as photodyne formed by two porous silicon one-dimensional photonic crystals with an
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Photonic crystals have been an object of interest because of their properties to inhibit certain wavelengths and allow the transmission of others. Using these properties, we designed a photonic structure known as photodyne formed by two porous silicon one-dimensional photonic crystals with an air defect between them. When the photodyne is illuminated with appropriate light, it allows us to generate electromagnetic forces within the structure that can be maximized if the light becomes localized inside the defect region. These electromagnetic forces allow the microcavity to oscillate mechanically. In the experiment, a chopper was driven by a signal generator to modulate the laser light that was used. The driven frequency and the signal modulation waveform (rectangular, sinusoidal or triangular) were changed with the idea to find optimal conditions for the structure to oscillate. The microcavity displacement amplitude, velocity amplitude and Fourier spectrum of the latter and its frequency were measured by means of a vibrometer. The mechanical oscillations are modeled and compared with the experimental results and show good agreement. For external frequency values of 5 Hz and 10 Hz, the best option was a sinusoidal waveform, which gave higher photodyne displacements and velocity amplitudes. Nonetheless, for an external frequency of 15 Hz, the best option was the rectangular waveform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Ultraviolet Laser Lithography of Titania Photonic Crystals for Terahertz-Wave Modulation
Materials 2018, 11(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050835
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) microphotonic crystals with a diamond structure composed of titania microlattices were fabricated using ultraviolet laser lithography, and the bandgap properties in the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic-wave frequency region were investigated. An acrylic resin paste with titania fine particle dispersions was used as
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) microphotonic crystals with a diamond structure composed of titania microlattices were fabricated using ultraviolet laser lithography, and the bandgap properties in the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic-wave frequency region were investigated. An acrylic resin paste with titania fine particle dispersions was used as the raw material for additive manufacturing. By scanning a spread paste surface with an ultraviolet laser beam, two-dimensional solid patterns were dewaxed and sintered. Subsequently, 3D structures with a relative density of 97% were created via layer lamination and joining. A titania diamond lattice with a lattice constant density of 240 µm was obtained. The properties of the electromagnetic wave were measured using a THz time-domain spectrometer. In the transmission spectra for the Γ-X <100> direction, a forbidden band was observed from 0.26 THz to 0.44 THz. The frequency range of the bandgap agreed well with calculated results obtained using the plane–wave expansion method. Additionally, results of a simulation via transmission-line modeling indicated that a localized mode can be obtained by introducing a plane defect between twinned diamond lattice structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructured Waveguides with Polyelectrolyte-Stabilized Gold Nanostars for SERS Sensing of Dissolved Analytes
Materials 2018, 11(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050734
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
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Abstract
A sensor based on microstructured waveguides (MWGs) with a hollow core inner surface covered with polyelectrolyte-layer-stabilized gold nanostars was developed for the SERS sensing of dissolved analytes. A polyelectrolyte-layer coating over the inner surface of glass cladding served as a spacer, reducing nonlinear
[...] Read more.
A sensor based on microstructured waveguides (MWGs) with a hollow core inner surface covered with polyelectrolyte-layer-stabilized gold nanostars was developed for the SERS sensing of dissolved analytes. A polyelectrolyte-layer coating over the inner surface of glass cladding served as a spacer, reducing nonlinear optical effects in the glass near plasmonic hotspots of nanoparticles, as a stabilizing agent for thermodynamically unstable gold nanostars and as an optical coating for the fine-tuning of MWG bandgaps. This approach can be used to construct different kinds of SERS sensors for dissolved analytes, providing conservation, the prevention of coagulation, and the drying of a liquid sample for the time required to record the signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evanescent Properties of Optical Diffraction from 2-Dimensional Hexagonal Photonic Crystals and Their Sensor Applications
Materials 2018, 11(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040549
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
The sensitivity of traditional diffraction grating sensors is limited by the spatial resolution of the measurement setup. Thus, a large space is required to improve sensor performance. Here, we demonstrate a compact hexagonal photonic crystal (PhC) optical sensor with high sensitivity. PhCs are
[...] Read more.
The sensitivity of traditional diffraction grating sensors is limited by the spatial resolution of the measurement setup. Thus, a large space is required to improve sensor performance. Here, we demonstrate a compact hexagonal photonic crystal (PhC) optical sensor with high sensitivity. PhCs are able to diffract optical beams to various angles in azimuthal space. The critical wavelength that satisfies the phase matching or becomes evanescent was used to benchmark the refractive index of a target analyte applied on a PhC sensor. Using a glucose solution as an example, our sensor demonstrated very high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. This shows that the diffraction mechanism of hexagonal photonic crystals can be used for sensors when compact size is a concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Diatomite Photonic Crystals for Facile On-Chip Chromatography and Sensing of Harmful Ingredients from Food
Materials 2018, 11(4), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040539
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
PDF Full-text (30451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diatomaceous earth—otherwise called diatomite—is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced
[...] Read more.
Diatomaceous earth—otherwise called diatomite—is essentially composed of hydrated biosilica with periodic nanopores. Diatomite is derived from fossilized remains of diatom frustules and possesses photonic-crystal features. In this paper, diatomite simultaneously functions as the matrix of the chromatography plate and the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), by which the photonic crystal-features could enhance the optical field intensity. The on-chip separation performance of the device was confirmed by separating and detecting industrial dye (Sudan I) in an artificial aqueous mixture containing 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), where concentrated plasmonic Au colloid was casted onto the analyte spot for SERS measurement. The plasmonic-photonic hybrid mode between the Au nanoparticles (NP) and the diatomite layer could supply nearly 10 times the increment of SERS signal (MBA) intensity compared to the common silica gel chromatography plate. Furthermore, this lab-on-a-chip photonic crystal device was employed for food safety sensing in real samples and successfully monitored histamine in salmon and tuna. This on-chip food sensor can be used as a cheap, robust, and portable sensing platform for monitoring for histamine or other harmful ingredients at trace levels in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optical Biosensors Based on Photonic Crystals Supporting Bound States in the Continuum
Materials 2018, 11(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040526
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (19479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel optical label-free bio-sensing platform based on a new class of resonances supported in a photonic crystal metasurface is reported herein. Molecular binding is detected as a shift in the resonant wavelength of the bound states in the continuum of radiation modes.
[...] Read more.
A novel optical label-free bio-sensing platform based on a new class of resonances supported in a photonic crystal metasurface is reported herein. Molecular binding is detected as a shift in the resonant wavelength of the bound states in the continuum of radiation modes. The new configuration is applied to the recognition of the interaction between protein p53 and its protein regulatory partner murine double minute 2 (MDM2). A detection limit of 66 nM for the protein p53 is found. The device provides an excellent interrogation stability and loss-free operation, requires minimal optical interrogation equipment and can be easily optimized to work in a wide wavelength range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystals for Chemical Sensing and Biosensing)
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