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Special Issue "Environment-Friendly Construction Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shaopeng Wu

State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), China
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Interests: inorganic nonmetallic materials; bituminous materials and asphalt pavement; recycling asphalt materials; self-healing asphalt
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Inge Hoff

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway
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Interests: materials for transport infrastructure; environmental impact of pavement materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Serji Amirkhanian

Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
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Interests: construction materials; recycling issues and polymers; rubber tire recycling
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao

State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: road and pavement materials; pavement design; asphalt pavement surfacing; asphalt pavement maintenance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st International Conference on Sustainable Mega Infrastructures (SMI 2018) and the 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials: Design, Performance and Application (SCM2018) will be held in Donghu Hotel, Wuhan City, Hubei, China, on 10-11 August 2018. This conference is sponsored by the Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Alabama.

The SCM conferences have been a successful and a longstanding event since 2010, which bring together academic researchers and civil engineers from the world to promote technological achievement in sustainable construction materials. SMI2018 and SCM2018 will once again provide a unique opportunity to discuss the strategies and challenges related to the planning, execution and use of mega infrastructures, as well as sustainable construction materials. The scope of SMI2018 and SCM2018 will include, but is not limited to, cementitious paving materials, bituminous paving materials, recycled materials, waste materials, and so on.

The SMI2018 and SCM2018 will prepare diverse programs, including a plenary/keynote sessions, oral/poster sessions, exhibitions, and social events. This Special Issue was proposed based on the productive abstract submissions. Participants at SMI2018 and SCM2018 are highly encouraged to submit papers in this Special Issue for possible publication in Materials. Authors who would not attend the SMI2018 and SCM2018 conference are also warmly invited to submit a paper for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Shaopeng Wu
Prof. Dr. Inge Hoff
Prof. Dr. Serji Amirkhanian
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yue Xiao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Social and economic aspects of mega projects
  • Asphalt-based & cement-based mixtures
  • Pavement engineering
  • Environmental impact
  • Sustainable materials
  • Planning process
  • Digitalization of mega infrastructures
  • Pavement maintenance

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Self-Healing Property of Ultra-Thin Wearing Courses by Induction Heating
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081392
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Ultra-thin wearing course (UTWC) has been developed in pavement preventive maintenance for many years. However, how to prolong the service life of UTWC still requires further research. This study introduced AC-5 and SMA-5 asphalt mixtures, which can be induction heated. Steel fiber and
[...] Read more.
Ultra-thin wearing course (UTWC) has been developed in pavement preventive maintenance for many years. However, how to prolong the service life of UTWC still requires further research. This study introduced AC-5 and SMA-5 asphalt mixtures, which can be induction heated. Steel fiber and steel slag were used in the mixtures as additives. Marshall Stability and induction heating property of mixtures were characterized. In addition, self-healing property of UTWC materials had been emphatically conducted. Adding steel fiber in mixtures led to higher Marshall Stability and lower flow value, while steel slag generally showed a negative effect. Induction heating property showed a positive relationship with the additives. Induction heating time was positively correlated to the healing ratio of the mixtures. Induction heating on the mixtures could recover the strength of mixtures to a certain degree. Mixtures with more steel fiber showed a higher healing ratio. Basalt-steel slag based mixtures showed better healing ratios than the basalt based mixtures. The healing ratios of mixtures illustrated a decreasing tendency as the healing cycle increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Healing Agents on Crack Healing of Asphalt and Asphalt Mortar
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081373
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of seven healing agents on crack healing ability of long-term aged asphalt and its mortar. Different healing agents including sunflower oil, aromatic oil, bitumen emulsion, and maltene-based emulsions were used. The crack healing of asphalt made use of
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of seven healing agents on crack healing ability of long-term aged asphalt and its mortar. Different healing agents including sunflower oil, aromatic oil, bitumen emulsion, and maltene-based emulsions were used. The crack healing of asphalt made use of two asphalt disk samples and healing was evaluated using direct tensile tests. For asphalt mortar, notched semi-circular samples were used. Test results indicated that the crack healing of asphalt and its mortar depended strongly on the type of healing agent. In general, asphalt healed faster than its mortar. Asphalt healing could be well improved by using oil agents, while asphalt mortar could be well healed with maltene-based emulsions. The crack healing of asphalt mortar developed rapidly followed by a steady state of increase. Initial crack healing using healing agents could be contributed by the diffusion and softening effects, which resulted in low strength recovery. Long term healing could lead to the bonding reconstitution in the cracks, which were decisive for the final strength gain. The promising healing agent should be able to achieve maximum strength recovery to resist cracking as well as a sufficient re-healing ability to deal with crack opening and closing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Ageing in Bitumen Using Fluorescence Spectrum
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081325
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Bitumen ageing is a very complex process and poses a threat to the performance of pavements. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrophotometer was employed to research the change rule of components and the structure of bitumen after the ageing process. The Thin
[...] Read more.
Bitumen ageing is a very complex process and poses a threat to the performance of pavements. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrophotometer was employed to research the change rule of components and the structure of bitumen after the ageing process. The Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT) and Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment were carried out as ageing methods. The properties and components of bitumen were tested before and after aging. The 2D and 3D fluorescence spectra of bitumen were analyzed. The vector of fluorescence peak was calculated for evaluating the ageing process. The results indicated that the ideal concentration of bitumen- tetrachloromethane solution was 0.1 g/L or smaller for avoiding the fluorescence quenching. The coordinates of fluorescent peak appeared “blue-shift” after ageing due to the change of aromatics. In addition, bitumen has already occurred serious ageing when the magnitude of a vector is more than 36. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Design Optimization of SBS-Modified Asphalt Mixture Reinforced with Eco-Friendly Basalt Fiber Based on Response Surface Methodology
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081311
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the effects of basalt fiber content, length and asphalt-aggregate ratio on the volumetric and strength properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt mixture reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber. An experimental scheme was designed to optimize three preparation parameters for the Marshall test
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effects of basalt fiber content, length and asphalt-aggregate ratio on the volumetric and strength properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt mixture reinforced with eco-friendly basalt fiber. An experimental scheme was designed to optimize three preparation parameters for the Marshall test indices based on response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that basalt fiber content presents a more significant effect on air voids, voids in mineral aggregates and voids filled with asphalt. Basalt fiber length is more related to Marshall stability, and flow value exhibits a significant variation trend with asphalt-aggregate ratio. The optimization of preparation parameters is determined as follows: basalt fiber content is 0.34%, length is 6 mm, asphalt-aggregate ratio is 6.57%, which possesses favorable and reliable accuracy compared with experimental results. Furthermore, basalt fiber reinforced asphalt binder and mixture were also studied, and it was found that basalt fiber can enhance the performance of asphalt binder and mixture in terms of cone penetration, softening point, force ductility, as well as pavement performance tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Wastes of Sanitary Ceramics as Recycling Aggregate to Special Concretes
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081275
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
This article presents the results of research on the wastes of sanitary ceramics as an aggregate to concretes. The case of high temperature load was taken into account. Six concrete mixes were designed on Portland and calcium aluminate cement with various content of
[...] Read more.
This article presents the results of research on the wastes of sanitary ceramics as an aggregate to concretes. The case of high temperature load was taken into account. Six concrete mixes were designed on Portland and calcium aluminate cement with various content of aerating admixture. Only the ground waste ceramics were used as an aggregate from one of the Polish sanitary ceramics plants. The abrasion test by Boehme blade of the designed concrete was conducted within the frame of study and compression strength tests on the cylindrical samples were performed as well. Some samples were initially annealed at 400 or 800 °C prior to strength tests. In order to determine the impact of annealing on the phase content and the concrete sample structure, the analyses on phase content (XRD—X-ray diffraction) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted. The tests on compression strength demonstrated that there is considerable resistance of concrete containing ceramic aggregate and calcium aluminate cement to high temperatures. Abrasion tests confirmed that selected mixes have a high resistance to abrasion and they can be applied as a concrete coating. The possibility of ceramic cullet use as an aggregate to special concretes has been confirmed by the conducted research on specific features. Taking into consideration the available literature, the article presents widely conducted research in the area of the internal structure of concrete designed on the basis of recycled ceramic aggregate, the phase content of individual components, and basic mechanical tests both in normal temperatures and under thermal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Dynamic Damping in Eco-Friendly Railway Concrete Sleepers Using Waste-Tyre Crumb Rubber
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071169
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
There is no doubt that the use of waste rubber in concrete applications is a genius alternative because Styrene is the main component of rubber, which has a strong toxicity and is harmful to humans. Therefore, it will significantly reduce impacts on the
[...] Read more.
There is no doubt that the use of waste rubber in concrete applications is a genius alternative because Styrene is the main component of rubber, which has a strong toxicity and is harmful to humans. Therefore, it will significantly reduce impacts on the environment when waste rubber can be recycled for genuine uses. In this paper, the dynamic properties of high-strength rubberised concrete have been investigated by carrying out various experiments to retain the compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, electrical resistivity, and damping characteristics by replacing fine aggregates with micro-scale crumb rubber. Over 20 variations of concrete mixes have been performed. The experimental results confirm that a decrease in the compressive strength can be expected when the rubber content is increased. The new findings demonstrate that the high-strength concrete can be enhanced by optimal rubber particles in order to improve splitting tensile and flexural strengths, damping properties, and electrical resistivity. It is therefore recommended to consider the use of rubberised concrete (up to 10 wt. % crumb rubber) in designing railway sleepers as this will improve the service life of railway track systems and reduce wastes to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Performance of Different Thickness Structure Combinations of Hot Mix Asphalt and Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071145
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Cement emulsified asphalt mixture (CEAM) is widely used in asphalt pavement for its environmental virtues. However, a CEAM layer can influence fatigue performance of asphalt pavement because of higher air voids of CEAM in contrast to hot mix asphalt (HMA). Therefore, it is
[...] Read more.
Cement emulsified asphalt mixture (CEAM) is widely used in asphalt pavement for its environmental virtues. However, a CEAM layer can influence fatigue performance of asphalt pavement because of higher air voids of CEAM in contrast to hot mix asphalt (HMA). Therefore, it is common to use HMA and CEAM structure combinations for improving the fatigue performance. In this work, three different thickness structure combinations of HMA (AC-10) and CEAM (AC-16) were designed, in which HMA and CEAM were used as top layer and bottom layer, respectively. The fatigue performance of the three combinations was studied. The fatigue equations of the combinations were established and the rational combination was recommended. The distributions of the internal voids in the combinations were studied with X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); and the correlation between the fatigue life and the void ratios were analyzed. Artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to predict the fatigue life of each combination. The results show that the fatigue life of the combinations is inversely proportional to the stress ratio level and environment temperature. The optimal combination is the structure with 40 mm HMA and 40 mm CEAM. The internal void ratio of CEAM is higher than that of HMA. A thinner HMA and thicker CEAM structure can result in higher void ratios and lower fatigue life of the combinations. The prediction results of ANN are similar to the experimental results. The obtained results can potentially guide the design of cement emulsified asphalt pavement structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Polyacrylic Acid on Rheology of Cement Paste Plasticized by Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071081
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Viscosity-enhancing agents (VEA) have been widely employed in high flowability cement-based materials, so as to ensure that no bleeding and segregation would occur. However, in most cases, interaction between VEA and superplasticizer would be unavoidable. In this study, the effect of polyacrylic acid
[...] Read more.
Viscosity-enhancing agents (VEA) have been widely employed in high flowability cement-based materials, so as to ensure that no bleeding and segregation would occur. However, in most cases, interaction between VEA and superplasticizer would be unavoidable. In this study, the effect of polyacrylic acid (PAA), known as one of the most commonly used VEAs, on rheology performance of cement paste containing polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE), was studied. The initial fluidity was assessed with mini slump, and rheological behavior of cement paste was evaluated with rotor rheometer. Adsorption amount was examined with total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer, and the zeta potential was also tested. The interaction between PAA and PCE in the presence of calcium ion (Ca2+) was analyzed with conductivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results illustrate that PAA can adsorb onto the surface of cement particles to plasticize cement paste, being similar to PCE. In the presence of Ca2+, PAA can be curled and crosslinked, as a result of the combination between carboxyl groups (COO) and Ca2+, thereby affecting the adsorption performance and conformation behavior. It is interesting that negative impact of PAA on dispersion efficiency of PCE can be demonstrated; one reason is the reduced adsorption amount of PCE by PAA competitively adsorbing onto the cement surface, and another possible reason is the invalided PCE by adsorption of PAA. Additionally, molecular weight of PAA should be considered if being used as VEA in PCE system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Water Solute Exposure on the Chemical Evolution and Rheological Properties of Asphalt
Materials 2018, 11(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060983
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The properties of asphalt pavement are damaged under the effects of moisture. The pH value and salt concentration of water are the key factors that affect the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt during moisture damage. Four kinds of water solutions, including distilled
[...] Read more.
The properties of asphalt pavement are damaged under the effects of moisture. The pH value and salt concentration of water are the key factors that affect the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt during moisture damage. Four kinds of water solutions, including distilled water, an acidic solution, alkaline solution and saline solution were used to investigate the effects of aqueous solute compositions on the chemical and rheological properties of asphalt. Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) were applied to investigate the components, chemistry and rheology characteristics of asphalt specimens before and after water solute exposure. The experimental results show that moisture damage of asphalt is not only associated with an oxidation process between asphalt with oxygen, but it is also highly dependent on some compounds of asphalt dissolving and being removed in the water solutions. In detail, after immersion in water solute, the fraction of saturates, aromatics and resins in asphalt binders decreased, while asphaltenes increased; an increase in the carbonyl and sulphoxide indices, and a decrease in the butadiene index were also found from the FTIR analyzer test. The rheological properties of asphalt are sensitive to water solute immersing. The addition of aqueous solutes causes more serious moisture damage on asphalt binders, with the pH11 solution presenting as the most destructive during water solute exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Fine Aggregate Morphology by Image Method and Its Effect on Skid-Resistance of Micro-Surfacing
Materials 2018, 11(6), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060920
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS
[...] Read more.
Micro-surfacing is a widely used pavement preventive maintenance technology used all over the world, due to its advantages of fast construction, low maintenance cost, good waterproofness, and skid-resistance performance. This study evaluated the fine aggregate morphology and surface texture of micro-surfacing by AIMS (aggregate image measurement system), and explored the effect of aggregate morphology on skid-resistance of single-grade micro-surfacing. Sand patch test and British pendulum test were also used to detect skid-resistance for comparison with the image-based method. Wet abrasion test was used to measure skid-resistance durability for feasibility verification of single-grade micro-surfacing. The results show that the effect of Form2D on the skid-resistance of micro-surfacing is much stronger than that of angularity. Combining the feasibility analysis of durability and skid-resistance, 1.18–2.36 grade micro-surfacing meets the requirements of durability and skid-resistance at the same time. This study also determined that, compared with British pendulum test, the texture result obtained by sand patch test fits better with results of image method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Initial Self-Healing Temperatures of Asphalt Mastics Based on Flow Behavior Index
Materials 2018, 11(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060917
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral
[...] Read more.
Increasing temperature is a simple and convenient method to accelerate the self-healing process of bitumen. However, bitumen may not achieve the healing capability at lower temperature, and may be aged if temperature is too high. In addition, the bitumen is mixed with mineral filler and formed as asphalt mastic in asphalt concrete, so it is more accurate to study the initial self-healing from the perspective of asphalt mastic. The primary purpose of this research was to examine the initial self-healing temperature of asphalt mastic, which was determined by the flow behavior index obtained from the flow characteristics. Firstly, the texture and geometry characteristics of two fillers were analyzed, and then the initial self-healing temperature of nine types of asphalt mastic, pure bitumen (PB) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified bitumen were determined by the flow behavior index. Results demonstrate that the average standard deviation of gray-scale texture value of limestone filler (LF) is 21.24% lower than that of steel slag filler (SSF), showing that the steel slag filler has a better particle distribution and geometry characteristics. Also the initial self-healing temperatures of asphalt mastics with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 LF-PB volume ratio are 46.5 °C, 47.2 °C and 49.4 °C, which are 1.4 °C, 0.8 °C and 0.4 °C higher than that of asphalt mastics with SSF-PB, but not suitable for the evaluation of asphalt mastic contained SBS modified bitumen because of unique structure and performance of SBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Heating Characteristics and Induced Healing Efficiencies of Asphalt Mixture via Induction and Microwave Heating
Materials 2018, 11(6), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060913
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the heating characteristics and induced healing efficiencies of asphalt mixture containing steel fiber under induction heating and microwave heating. The heating characteristics of an asphalt mixture with different heating methods were studied with an infrared camera. The healing performance of
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the heating characteristics and induced healing efficiencies of asphalt mixture containing steel fiber under induction heating and microwave heating. The heating characteristics of an asphalt mixture with different heating methods were studied with an infrared camera. The healing performance of the asphalt mixture specimens in different healing conditions were investigated by observing the crack closure and testing the fracture resistance recovery after healing. The results showed that the heating speed at the surface of asphalt mixture with induction heating was much higher than that with microwave machine heating, under a similar output power and the same method of radiation. While the temperature distribution within the asphalt mixture under induction heating was quite uneven, microwave heating resulted in a more uniform temperature distribution. The effective heating depth of microwave heating is much higher than that of induction heating. Gradient healing occurred within the sample heated with induction healing, while a uniform healing effect can be achieved with microwave heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Residual Fatigue Properties of Asphalt Pavement after Long-Term Field Service
Materials 2018, 11(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060892
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term
[...] Read more.
Asphalt pavement is widely used for expressways due to its advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy maintenance. However, pavement failures, including cracking, raveling, and potholes, will appear after long-term service. This research evaluated the residual fatigue properties of asphalt pavement after long-term field service. Fatigue behavior of specimens with different pavement failure types, traffic load, service time, and layers were collected and characterized. Results indicate that after long-term field service, surface layer has a longer fatigue life under small stress levels, but shorter fatigue life under large stress levels. Longer service time results in greater sensitivity to loading stress, while heavier traffic results in shorter fatigue life. Surface and underneath layers present very close fatigue trend lines in some areas, indicating that the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture in surface and underneath layers are aged to the same extent after eight to ten years of field service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Diffusibility Enhancement of Rejuvenator by Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Its Influence on the Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures
Materials 2018, 11(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050833
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was employed as a novel penetrant cooperating with a conventional rejuvenator (CR) for the recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The influence of ESO on the diffusibility and the regenerating effects of CR on RAP were investigated. The diffusibility
[...] Read more.
Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was employed as a novel penetrant cooperating with a conventional rejuvenator (CR) for the recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The influence of ESO on the diffusibility and the regenerating effects of CR on RAP were investigated. The diffusibility testing result shows that the diffusibility of CR is enhanced by the addition of ESO because the epoxy group in ESO can facilitate asphaltene dispersion due to its high polarity, which simultaneously reduces the viscosity and improves the fluidity of aged bitumen so as to allow diffusion of the rejuvenator into the aged bitumen. Road performance testing of a recycled hot mix asphalt mixture (RHMA) indicates that the fatigue and cracking resistance properties as well as the water stability of RHMA containing CR can be improved by the addition of ESO due to the diffusibility enhancement of CR, which boosts the regenerating effect of CR on aged bitumen in RAP. The fatigue and cracking resistance properties as well as the water stability of the recycled hot mix asphalt mixture containing CR with 7 wt % ESO approximate those of the hot mix asphalt mixture composed of the same virgin aggregates and bitumen. Taking into account the rutting resistance decline versus the addition of ESO, the content of ESO should not exceed 7 wt % of the conventional rejuvenator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Thermal Properties of Molecular-Bridged Expanded Graphite/Polyethylene Glycol Composite Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Conservation
Materials 2018, 11(5), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050818
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (35327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings’ energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through
[...] Read more.
Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings’ energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs. The phase change temperature, latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the m-EPs were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), TGA, and a thermal constants analyzer. Results showed that the maximum mass ratio of PEG to EG without leakage was 1:7, and a stable connection was established in the m-EPs after modification. Compared with the unmodified EPs, the supercooling degree of the m-EPs reduced by about 3 °C, but the latent heats and initial decomposition temperatures increased by approximately 10% and 20 °C, respectively, which indicated an improvement in the thermal energy storage efficiency. The thermal conductivities of the m-EPs were 10 times higher than those of the pristine PEGs, which ensured a rapid responding to building temperature fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on Bitumen Aging Depth
Materials 2018, 11(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050747
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
The aging effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bitumen has gained increasing attention from researchers, resulting in the emergence of a new method to simulate the UV aging that occurs during the service life of bitumen. However, the UV aging degree is closely
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The aging effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bitumen has gained increasing attention from researchers, resulting in the emergence of a new method to simulate the UV aging that occurs during the service life of bitumen. However, the UV aging degree is closely related to bitumen thickness and the effect of UV radiation on aging depth is not clear. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and bitumen UV aging depth was investigated in this paper. Three groups of samples were UV aged using different aging procedures to investigate the bitumen aging mechanism of UV radiation. The results from the first group showed that UV aging depth increased along with aging time. After aging for five hours, the complex modulus of the second and third layers increased. The second group’s results indicated that the aging effect of ozone was small and that the increase in aging depth was uncorrelated with ozone. The results from the third group showed that the transmittance of bitumen increased after UV aging and that the real reason why aging depth increased was permeation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Method of Fatigue-Life Prediction for an Asphalt Mixture Based on the Plateau Value of Permanent Deformation Ratio
Materials 2018, 11(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050722
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Laboratory predictions for the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture under cyclic loading based on the plateau value (PV) of the permanent deformation ratio (PDR) were carried out by three-point bending fatigue tests. The influence of test conditions on the recovery ratio of
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Laboratory predictions for the fatigue life of an asphalt mixture under cyclic loading based on the plateau value (PV) of the permanent deformation ratio (PDR) were carried out by three-point bending fatigue tests. The influence of test conditions on the recovery ratio of elastic deformation (RRED), the permanent deformation (PD) and PDR, and the trends of RRED, PD, and PDR were studied. The damage variable was defined by using PDR, and the relation of the fatigue life to PDR was determined by analyzing the damage evolution process. The fatigue equation was established based on the PV of PDR and the fatigue life was predicted by analyzing the relation of the fatigue life to the PV. The results show that the RRED decreases with the increase of the number of loading cycles, and the elastic recovery ability of the asphalt mixture gradually decreases. The two mathematical models proposed are based on the change laws of the RRED, and the PD can well describe the change laws. The RRED or the PD cannot well predict the fatigue life because they do not change monotonously with the fatigue life, and one part of the deformation causes the damage and the other part causes the viscoelastic deformation. The fatigue life decreases with the increase of the PDR. The average PDR in the second stage is taken as the PV, and the fatigue life decreases in a power law with the increase of the PV. The average relative error of the fatigue life predicted by the fatigue equation to the test fatigue life is 5.77%. The fatigue equation based on PV can well predict the fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture
Materials 2018, 11(5), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050686
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous
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Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO2 content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Recycled Ceramic Aggregates for the Production of Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures
Materials 2018, 11(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050658
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a method of designing and producing innovative mineral–asphalt mixtures, which utilize waste aggregate from the recycling of sanitary ceramics. The work presents the basic properties of the ceramic material, the investigation concerning the microstructure of the aggregate obtained from the
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This paper describes a method of designing and producing innovative mineral–asphalt mixtures, which utilize waste aggregate from the recycling of sanitary ceramics. The work presents the basic properties of the ceramic material, the investigation concerning the microstructure of the aggregate obtained from the grinding of waste, and a comparison with the images obtained for the aggregates usually employed in mineral–asphalt mixtures. The mixtures were designed for the application in the wearing course. Four series of mixtures were prepared. In the first and second, the ceramic aggregate constituted a partial substitute for dolomite, whereas in the third, we substituted granodiorite, and the fourth series contained only dolomite. The mixtures were examined for the content of soluble binder, the bulk density of samples, the presence of voids, the space filled with binder, and the susceptibility to water and frost corrosion. The obtained results were compared with the standard requirements. The microstructure as well as the contact zone in the considered mineral–asphalt mixtures are presented based on research conducted by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Microfluidic Synthesis of Ca-Alginate Microcapsules for Self-Healing of Bituminous Binder
Materials 2018, 11(4), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040630
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
This work aims to develop an original alginate micro-emulsion combining with droplets microfluidic method to produce multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator for the self-healing of bituminous binder. The sizes of the Ca-alginate microcapsules could be easily controlled by tuning flow rates of the
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This work aims to develop an original alginate micro-emulsion combining with droplets microfluidic method to produce multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator for the self-healing of bituminous binder. The sizes of the Ca-alginate microcapsules could be easily controlled by tuning flow rates of the continuous and dispersed phases. The addition of a surfactant Tween80 not only improved the stability of the emulsion, but it also effectively reduced the size of the microcapsules. Size predictive mathematical model of the microcapsules was proposed through the analysis of fluid force. Optical microscope and remote Fourier infrared test confirmed the multinuclear structure of Ca-alginate microcapsules. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the microcapsules coated with nearly 40% rejuvenator and they remained intact during the preparation of bitumen specimen at 135 °C. Micro self-healing process of bituminous binder with multinuclear Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator was monitored and showed enhanced self-healing performance. Tensile stress-recovery test revealed that the recovery rate increased by 32.08% (in the case of 5% microcapsules), which meant that the Ca-alginate microcapsules containing rejuvenator could effectively enhance the self-healing property of bituminous binder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Construction Materials)
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