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Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy
Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Department of Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Department of Vascular Surgery, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth PO6 3LY, UK
National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 20 September 2013
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n = 121) were randomised to Omacor® or olive oil as placebo (2 g/day) until surgery (median 21 days). Blood pressure, plasma lipids, and plasma inflammatory markers were determined. There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 concentrations, in both groups. The extent of triglyceride lowering was greater with Omacor® (25%) compared with placebo (9%). Soluble E-selectin concentration was significantly decreased in the Omacor® group but increased in the placebo group. At the end of the supplementation period there were no differences in blood pressure or in plasma lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations between the two groups. It is concluded that Omacor® given at 2 g/day for an average of 21 days to patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis lowers triglycerides and soluble E-selectin concentrations, but has limited broad impact on the plasma lipid profile or on inflammatory markers. This may be because the duration of intervention was too short or the dose of n-3 fatty acids was too low.
Keywords: omega-3; fish oil; cytokine; adhesion molecule; cardiovascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yusof, H.M.; Cawood, A.L.; Ding, R.; Williams, J.A.; Napper, F.L.; Shearman, C.P.; Grimble, R.F.; Payne, S.P.; Calder, P.C. Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3569-3581.
Yusof HM, Cawood AL, Ding R, Williams JA, Napper FL, Shearman CP, Grimble RF, Payne SP, Calder PC. Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(9):3569-3581.
Yusof, Hayati M.; Cawood, Abbie L.; Ding, Ren; Williams, Jennifer A.; Napper, Frances L.; Shearman, Clifford P.; Grimble, Robert F.; Payne, Simon P.; Calder, Philip C. 2013. "Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 9: 3569-3581.