Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(10), 3689-3717; doi:10.3390/md11103689
Review

Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

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Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytogenetic and Molecular Effects of Marine Compounds)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization.
Keywords: microcystin; cylindrospermopsin; cyanobacterial toxin; plant chromatin; microtubules
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MDPI and ACS Style

Máthé, C.; M-Hamvas, M.; Vasas, G. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3689-3717.

AMA Style

Máthé C, M-Hamvas M, Vasas G. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(10):3689-3717.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor. 2013. "Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 10: 3689-3717.

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