Special Issue "Paleoceanography"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Min-Te Chen

Institute of Applied Geosciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Fax: +866 2 2462 5038
Interests: paleoceanography/paleoclimatology; past global change; marine micropaleontology; marine geology; stratigraphy & sedimentology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Paleoceanography has been emerged as an exciting scientific discipline since 1980 while ocean drilling into the sea floor provided plenty of marine sediment cores that were very useful for reconstructing past ocean history. Studies on paleoceanography have been also grown very rapidly to help understand long-term climate change as newly advanced observations, techniques, and modeling used in modern climatology provide excellent insights in interpreting past ocean history. Though studies on long-term ocean climate variability at orbital- to multi-decadal scales by the uses of marine sedimentary archives provide crucial information on how ocean dynamics link to Earth system evolution, compiling a global picture of past climate change requires terrestrial archives such as from ice cores, lake and loess sediment cores, and corals and stalagmites. This special issue, in the light of developing background of paleoceanography, encourages publications that help improve our understanding on the dynamics and interaction of complicated ocean-climate system. This special issue aims to collect recent new research into paleoceanography on the following themes: (1) new proxy record reconstructions for long-term ocean climate variability at orbital- to multi-decadal scales based on marine sediment cores; (2) regional to global data synthesis of high-resolution ocean climate records from marine, lake, cave, coral, and loess sediment archives; (3) new evaluation and calibration of paleoceanographic proxies by modern ocean observations such as stratified ocean water sampling, sediment traps, and surface sediment coring; (4) verifications on current conceptual models such as that involving long-term, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), Antarctic surface or bottom water formation, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Monsoon, or El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like mechanisms by reconstructed high-resolution paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic records and global climate models. The special issue also welcomes contributions for presenting new ideas for the last decade direction of paleoceanography, reviews on current status and problem, and possible new techniques that maybe useful in future paleoceanographic studies.

Prof. Dr. Min-Te Chen
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • Marine Sediment Core
  • Paleoceanographic Proxy
  • Global Climate Model
  • Orbital to Multi-decadal Scale Variability

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effect of Vegetation on the Late Miocene Ocean Circulation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1311-1333; doi:10.3390/jmse3041311
Received: 9 August 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
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Abstract
We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago). In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to [...] Read more.
We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago). In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to a weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean which is consistent with most other modeling studies for this time period. Here, we estimate the effect of a changed vegetation cover on the ocean general circulation using atmospheric circulation model simulations for the late Miocene climate with 353 ppmv CO2 level. The Late Miocene land surface cover reduces the albedo, the net evaporation in the North Atlantic catchment is affected and the North Atlantic water becomes more saline leading to a more vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water circulation. These effects reveal potentially important feedbacks between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleoceanography)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Performance of Two Advanced Spectral Methods for the Analysis of Times Series in Paleoceanography
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 957-967; doi:10.3390/jmse3030957
Received: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
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Abstract
Many studies have revealed the cyclicity of past ocean/atmosphere dynamics at a wide range of time scales (from decadal to millennial time scales), based on the spectral analysis of time series of climate proxies obtained from deep sea sediment cores. Among the [...] Read more.
Many studies have revealed the cyclicity of past ocean/atmosphere dynamics at a wide range of time scales (from decadal to millennial time scales), based on the spectral analysis of time series of climate proxies obtained from deep sea sediment cores. Among the many techniques available for spectral analysis, the maximum entropy method and the Thomson multitaper approach have frequently been used because of their good statistical properties and high resolution with short time series. The novelty of the present study is that we compared the two methods by according to the performance of their statistical tests to assess the statistical significance of their power spectrum estimates. The statistical significance of maximum entropy estimates was assessed by a random permutation test (Pardo-Igúzquiza and Rodríguez-Tovar, 2000), while the statistical significance of the Thomson multitaper method was assessed by an F-test (Thomson, 1982). We compared the results obtained in a case study using simulated data where the spectral content of the time series was known and in a case study with real data. In both cases the results are similar: while the cycles identified as significant by maximum entropy and the permutation test have a clear physical interpretation, the F-test with the Thomson multitaper estimator tends to find as no significant the peaks in the low frequencies and tends to give as significant more spurious peaks in the middle and high frequencies. Nevertheless, the best strategy is to use both techniques and to use the advantages of each of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleoceanography)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The early evolution of the oceans
Authors:
Des Lascelles
Affiliations:
Centre for Exploration Targeting, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Western Australia M006, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009.
Abstract
: The late heavy bombardment (LHD) at ca 3.8-4.2 Ga remelted the surface of the Earth and obliterated all evidence of previous crust and oceans. Thus evolution of the oceans can be construed as commencing after the Earth’s surface solidified after the LHD. A shallow ocean formed on the cooled crust by precipitation of pure water from the atmosphere but reactions involving hydrolysis of silicate minerals in the crust provided cations and amorphous silica in solution and the formation of clay minerals that combined with reactive gases in the atmosphere to form new minerals. The cooler early Sun provided insufficient heat to maintain liquid water at the surface of the Earth but the abundant supply of radioactive heat counterbalanced the solar output and as the radioactive heat diminished over time the increasing solar heat helped to maintain the presence of liquid water at the surface.
Water vapour and occluded gases continued to be emitted from the mantle by volcanic activity throughout geological time gradually increasing the volume of the oceans and atmosphere while the formation of continents and ocean basins increased the depth of the oceans but also reduced their surface area. Subaerial weathering and erosion of island arcs and early continents increased the salinity of the oceans and introduced sediments onto the ocean floor.
The evolution of photosynthesizing organisms resulted in a major change at ca 2.4 Ga with the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere and oceans.

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