Special Issue "Stem Cells and Biomaterials"

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A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David L. Kaplan (Website)

Departments of Biomedical Engineering & Chemical and Biological Engineering Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155, USA
Interests: extracellular matrix remodeling, biosynthesis, bioengineered spider

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The innate ability of stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a promising source for tissue regeneration applications.  This capacity to self-renew and differentiate is heavily influenced by the microenvironment. Therefore, to consistently and efficiently control the fate determination of stem cells, it is necessary to replicate the physical, chemical, and biological signals found in the microenvironment, both spatially and temporally.  Engineered biomaterials have the potential to mimic and control the physical, chemical and biologic factors necessary for guided stem cell differentiation.  They are currently being investigated to act as scaffolds to guide and improve 3D tissue formation, substrates to enhance cell culturing techniques, vehicles for cell delivery, and sources of immobilized and/or time released factors.  These biomaterials are being applied to the regeneration of numerous tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, myocardium and nerves, among others, and are being used to enhance the engraftment of modified adult stem cells.  The continued advancement of biomaterials holds the promise of improved therapies for numerous conditions.

Prof. Dr. David L. Kaplan
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • mesenchymal stem cell
  • hematopoietic stem cell
  • induced pluripotent stem cell
  • embryonic stem cell
  • hydrogel
  • electrospun fibers
  • tissue engineering
  • 3D scaffolds
  • tissue regeneration
  • silk
  • stem cell niche

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Porcine Intervertebral Disc Matrix on Stem Cell Differentiation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(3), 155-172; doi:10.3390/jfb2030155
Received: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For back disorders, cell therapy is one approach for a real regeneration of a degenerated nucleus pulposus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) could be differentiated into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells and used for cell therapy. Therefore it is necessary to find a [...] Read more.
For back disorders, cell therapy is one approach for a real regeneration of a degenerated nucleus pulposus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) could be differentiated into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells and used for cell therapy. Therefore it is necessary to find a suitable biocompatible matrix, which supports differentiation. It could be shown that a differentiation of hMSC in a microbial transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin matrix is possible, but resulted in a more chondrocyte-like cell type. The addition of porcine NP extract to the gelatin matrix caused a differentiation closer to the desired NP cell phenotype. This concludes that a hydrogel containing NP extract without any other supplements could be suitable for differentiation of hMSCs into NP cells. The NP extract itself can be cross-linked by transglutaminase to build a hydrogel free of NP atypical substrates. As shown by side-specific biotinylation, the NP extract contains molecules with free glutamine and lysine residues available for the transglutaminase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Pulsatile Bioreactor for Mechanical Stimulation of Tissue Engineered Cardiac Constructs
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(3), 107-118; doi:10.3390/jfb2030107
Received: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After myocardial infarction, the implantation of stem cell seeded scaffolds on the ischemic zone represents a promising strategy for restoration of heart function. However, mechanical integrity and functionality of tissue engineered constructs need to be determined prior to implantation. Therefore, in this [...] Read more.
After myocardial infarction, the implantation of stem cell seeded scaffolds on the ischemic zone represents a promising strategy for restoration of heart function. However, mechanical integrity and functionality of tissue engineered constructs need to be determined prior to implantation. Therefore, in this study a novel pulsatile bioreactor mimicking the myocardial contraction was developed to analyze the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord tissue (UCMSC) colonized on titanium-coated polytetrafluorethylene scaffolds to friction stress. The design of the bioreactor enables a simple handling and defined mechanical forces on three seeded scaffolds at physiological conditions. The compact system made of acrylic glass, Teflon®, silicone, and stainless steel allows the comparison of different media, cells and scaffolds. The bioreactor can be gas sterilized and actuated in a standard incubator. Macroscopic observations and pressure-measurements showed a uniformly sinusoidal pulsation, indicating that the bioreactor performed well. Preliminary experiments to determine the adherence rate and morphology of UCMSC after mechanical loadings showed an almost confluent cellular coating without damage on the cell surface. In summary, the bioreactor is an adequate tool for the mechanical stress of seeded scaffolds and offers dynamic stimuli for pre-conditioning of cardiac tissue engineered constructs in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 39-66; doi:10.3390/jfb2020039
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Primary MSC from cortical bone [...] Read more.
A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Primary MSC from cortical bone (CB)  tissue proved to form more and larger colony units, as well as produce more mineral matrix under osteogenic differentiation, than MSC from bone marrow (BM). Coating pre-treatments were optimized for maximum cell adhesion and mineralization, while a PRP-based gel carrier was created to efficiently deliver and retain MSC and  microparticles within a porous scaffold while simultaneously promoting cell recruitment, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Components and composite sponges were evaluated for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic sponges were loaded with MSC, PRP, PA, and NSE and implanted subcutaneously in rats to evaluate the formation of bone tissue and angiogenesis in vivo. It was found that the combination of a collagen sponge with CB MSC, PRP, PA, and the BMP2-releasing NSE formed the most bone and was most vascularized by four weeks compared to analogous composites featuring BM MSC or PCL or lacking PRP, PA, and NSE. This study indicates that CB MSC should be considered as an alternative to marrow as a source of stem cells, while the PRP-PA cell and microparticle delivery system may be utilized for diverse tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials—Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(3), 119-154; doi:10.3390/jfb2030119
Received: 26 May 2011 / Revised: 29 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material [...] Read more.
Current tissue engineering techniques have various drawbacks: they often incorporate uncontrolled and imprecise scaffold geometries, whereas the current conventional cell seeding techniques result mostly in random cell placement rather than uniform cell distribution. For the successful reconstruction of deficient tissue, new material engineering approaches have to be considered to overcome current limitations. An emerging method to produce complex biological products including cells or extracellular matrices in a controlled manner is a process called bioprinting or biofabrication, which effectively uses principles of rapid prototyping combined with cell-loaded biomaterials, typically hydrogels. 3D tissue printing is an approach to manufacture functional tissue layer-by-layer that could be transplanted in vivo after production. This method is especially advantageous for stem cells since a controlled environment can be created to influence cell growth and differentiation. Using printed tissue for biotechnological and pharmacological needs like in vitro drug-testing may lead to a revolution in the pharmaceutical industry since animal models could be partially replaced by biofabricated tissues mimicking human physiology and pathology. This would not only be a major advancement concerning rising ethical issues but would also have a measureable impact on economical aspects in this industry of today, where animal studies are very labor-intensive and therefore costly. In this review, current controlled material and cell positioning techniques are introduced highlighting approaches towards 3D tissue printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Micro- and Nanoengineering Approaches to Control Stem Cell-Biomaterial Interactions
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(3), 88-106; doi:10.3390/jfb2030088
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 11 June 2011 / Accepted: 21 June 2011 / Published: 24 June 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As our population ages, there is a greater need for a suitable supply of engineered tissues to address a range of debilitating ailments. Stem cell based therapies are envisioned to meet this emerging need. Despite significant progress in controlling stem cell differentiation, [...] Read more.
As our population ages, there is a greater need for a suitable supply of engineered tissues to address a range of debilitating ailments. Stem cell based therapies are envisioned to meet this emerging need. Despite significant progress in controlling stem cell differentiation, it is still difficult to engineer human tissue constructs for transplantation. Recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication techniques have enabled the design of more biomimetic biomaterials that may be used to direct the fate of stem cells. These biomaterials could have a significant impact on the next generation of stem cell based therapies. Here, we highlight the recent progress made by micro- and nanoengineering techniques in the biomaterials field in the context of directing stem cell differentiation. Particular attention is given to the effect of surface topography, chemistry, mechanics and micro- and nanopatterns on the differentiation of embryonic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Mechanotransduction: Tuning Stem Cells Fate
J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 67-87; doi:10.3390/jfb2020067
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in [...] Read more.
It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)

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