J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2(2), 39-66; doi:10.3390/jfb2020039
Article

Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration

1 Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77053, USA 2 Centre for Stem Cell Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77053, USA 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 77053, USA 4 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60086, USA 5 Department of Orthopaedics, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77053, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2011; in revised form: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells and Biomaterials)
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Abstract: A novel bioactive sponge was created with a composite of type I collagen sponges or porous poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), BMP2-loaded nanoporous silicon enclosure (NSE) microparticles, mineralizing peptide amphiphiles (PA), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Primary MSC from cortical bone (CB)  tissue proved to form more and larger colony units, as well as produce more mineral matrix under osteogenic differentiation, than MSC from bone marrow (BM). Coating pre-treatments were optimized for maximum cell adhesion and mineralization, while a PRP-based gel carrier was created to efficiently deliver and retain MSC and  microparticles within a porous scaffold while simultaneously promoting cell recruitment, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Components and composite sponges were evaluated for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic sponges were loaded with MSC, PRP, PA, and NSE and implanted subcutaneously in rats to evaluate the formation of bone tissue and angiogenesis in vivo. It was found that the combination of a collagen sponge with CB MSC, PRP, PA, and the BMP2-releasing NSE formed the most bone and was most vascularized by four weeks compared to analogous composites featuring BM MSC or PCL or lacking PRP, PA, and NSE. This study indicates that CB MSC should be considered as an alternative to marrow as a source of stem cells, while the PRP-PA cell and microparticle delivery system may be utilized for diverse tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: bone regeneration; tissue engineering; composite scaffold; mesenchymal stem cells; platelet-rich plasma; nanoporous silicon; peptide amphiphiles

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MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, M.B.; Blashki, D.; Buchanan, R.M.; Fan, D.; De Rosa, E.; Shah, R.N.; Stupp, S.I.; Weiner, B.K.; Simmons, P.J.; Ferrari, M.; Tasciotti, E. Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration. J. Funct. Biomater. 2011, 2, 39-66.

AMA Style

Murphy MB, Blashki D, Buchanan RM, Fan D, De Rosa E, Shah RN, Stupp SI, Weiner BK, Simmons PJ, Ferrari M, Tasciotti E. Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2011; 2(2):39-66.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murphy, Matthew B.; Blashki, Daniel; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Fan, Dongmei; De Rosa, Enrica; Shah, Ramille N.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Simmons, Paul J.; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio. 2011. "Multi-Composite Bioactive Osteogenic Sponges Featuring Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Nanoporous Silicon Enclosures, and Peptide Amphiphiles for Rapid Bone Regeneration." J. Funct. Biomater. 2, no. 2: 39-66.

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