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Special Issue "Chromatin Assembly"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Recognition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alexandra Lusser

Division of Molecular Biology, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +43 512 9003 70210
Fax: +43 512 9003 73100

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In eukaryotic cells genomic DNA and the highly conserved histone proteins form a nucleoprotein complex that is termed chromatin. Chromatin is a dynamic entity that varies in structure throughout the cell cycle. The basic repeating unit of the chromatin, the nucleosome, consists of 147 bp of DNA wrapped around an octamer of the histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4.  Chromatin assembly is a tightly regulated process that occurs during DNA replication, when parental and de novo synthesized histones are distributed among newly replicated DNA strands. Moreover, nucleosome assembly is required during transcription and in DNA repair and recombination. Thus, chromatin assembly is an integral part of many important DNA-utilizing processes.

In recent years it has become apparent that different mechanisms are used to assemble chromatin in a highly specific way involving a multitude of factors. The major components of chromatin assembly pathways are histone chaperones and ATP-dependent factors belonging to the SNF2 family of proteins. Several factors, such as the histone chaperones CAF1 or ASF1 or the ATPase ISWI, have been found to play important roles in replication-dependent assembly. In contrast, the chaperones Hira, Daxx and Dek and the ATPases CHD1, SWR1 and ATRX have been linked to replication-independent incorporation of histone variants. This Special Issue on Chromatin Assembly is dedicated to the review of recent developments in the field as well as to the featuring of research contributions that will further our understanding of the mechanisms that govern establishment and maintenance of the chromatin structure in the cell.

Alexandra Lusser
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • histone chaperone
  • chromatin remodelling factor
  • histone variant exchange
  • replication-dependent chromatin assembly
  • de novo chromatin assembly
  • chromatin disassembly
  • heterochromatin assembly
  • histone H1 incorporation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors and Their Roles in Affecting Nucleosome Fiber Composition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6544-6565; doi:10.3390/ijms12106544
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage repair,
[...] Read more.
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage repair, promoting homologous recombination to maintaining genomic stability. Several chromatin remodeling factors are critical components of nucleosome assembly processes, and recent reports have identified specific functions of distinct chromatin remodeling factors in the assembly of variant histones into chromatin. In this review we will discuss the specific roles of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors in determining nucleosome composition and, thus, chromatin fiber properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Assembly)
Open AccessReview Interplay of Dynamic Transcription and Chromatin Remodeling: Lessons from Yeast
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 4758-4769; doi:10.3390/ijms12084758
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regulation of transcription involves dynamic rearrangements of chromatin structure. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a variety of highly conserved factors necessary for these reconstructions. Chromatin remodelers, histone modifiers and histone chaperones directly associate to promoters and open reading frames of exposed genes
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Regulation of transcription involves dynamic rearrangements of chromatin structure. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a variety of highly conserved factors necessary for these reconstructions. Chromatin remodelers, histone modifiers and histone chaperones directly associate to promoters and open reading frames of exposed genes and facilitate activation and repression of transcription. We compare two distinct patterns of induced transcription: Sustained transcribed genes switch to an activated state where they remain as long as the induction signal is present. In contrast, single pulsed transcribed genes show a quick and strong induction pulse resulting in high transcript levels followed by adaptation and repression to basal levels. We discuss intensively studied promoters and coding regions from both groups for their co-factor requirements during transcription. Interplay between chromatin restructuring factors and dynamic transcription is highly variable and locus dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Assembly)
Open AccessReview Epigenetics: New Questions on the Response to Hypoxia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4705-4721; doi:10.3390/ijms12074705
Received: 22 June 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduction in oxygen levels below normal concentrations plays important roles in different normal and pathological conditions, such as development, tumorigenesis, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Organisms exposed to hypoxia trigger changes at both cellular and systemic levels to recover oxygen homeostasis. Most of
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Reduction in oxygen levels below normal concentrations plays important roles in different normal and pathological conditions, such as development, tumorigenesis, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Organisms exposed to hypoxia trigger changes at both cellular and systemic levels to recover oxygen homeostasis. Most of these processes are mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors, HIFs, a family of transcription factors that directly induce the expression of several hundred genes in mammalian cells. Although different aspects of HIF regulation are well known, it is still unclear by which precise mechanism HIFs activate transcription of their target genes. Concomitantly, hypoxia provokes a dramatic decrease of general transcription that seems to rely in part on epigenetic changes through a poorly understood mechanism. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chromatin changes involved in HIF dependent gene activation, as well as on other epigenetic changes, not necessarily linked to HIF that take place under hypoxic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Assembly)

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