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Special Issue "Information Theory and 5G Technologies"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Information Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis Javier Garcia Villalba

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 91 394 76 38
Interests: anonymity; computer security; cyber security; cryptography; information security; intrusion detection; malware; privacy; trust
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anura P. Jayasumana

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1373, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-970-491-7855
Interests: Computer and Communication Networking; Application of sensor networks and embedded systems; VLSI
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jun Bi

Institute for Network Sciences and Cyberspace, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: SAVA; SDN; NDN; Routing
Guest Editor
Dr. Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: multimedia forensics; computer and network security; error-correcting codes; information theory

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Information theory has been applied in communications for over a half a century now, starting from the pioneering work of Shannon. The aim of this Special Issue is to encourage researchers to present original and recent developments on information theory for 5G communication systems and algorithms. 5G wireless communication systems are envisaged to support an exponential increase in the number of connected devices and the corresponding data demands. The use of innovative technologies in the context of 5G, such as Software Defined Networking, Network Function Virtualization, Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, among others, are expected to bring increasingly more attention of the research community. The mobile infrastructure resources evolve from closed physical equipment running private software to dynamic and open software instances running on top of virtualized infrastructure. It has created a new market based on the provisioning of customized mobile services. However, the lack of coordination and management of the resources limit the development of these novel technologies.
The present Special Issue focuses on the design and management issues in Future Networks, especially in the context of 5G mobile systems. It aims to provide a holistic view of research challenges and opportunities in the future management, analysis and monitoring in this emerging area. For this purpose, submissions of comprehensive overviews and surveys for future networks, as well as original papers related to these techniques, are proposed. Any paper submitted to this special issue should be relevant to entropy ,information theory ,probability theory or related aspect.

Prof. Dr. Luis Javier Garcia Villalba
Prof. Dr. Anura P. Jayasumana
Prof. Dr. Jun Bi
Prof. Dr. Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Information Theory applied to 5G Communication Systems
  • Network Architectures for 5G Mobile Systems
  • Scalable Management for 5G Architectures
  • Advanced Security, Privacy, Authentication for 5G Systems
  • Monitoring and Analysis of Mobile Systems and Resources
  • Simulation and Use Cases for Multi-Platform Architectures
  • 5G Network Softwarization.
  • Multi Tenancy in SDN/NFV Environments
  • 5G Mobile Integration with Sensor, Fixed Networks
  • Data and Control Planes Evolution for 5G
  • Mobile Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Integration of SDN, NFV with Mobile Architectures
  • Orchestration and Management of Future Networks
  • Service Function Chaining and Function Virtualization on Future Networks
  • Intelligent Management of 5G infrastructures

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Virtual Network Reconfiguration Method for Hybrid Multiple Failures Based on Weighted Relative Entropy
Entropy 2018, 20(9), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20090711
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
Network virtualization can offer more flexibility and better manageability for next generation Internet. With the increasing deployments of virtual networks in military and commercial networks, a major challenge is to ensure virtual network survivability against hybrid multiple failures. In this paper, we study
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Network virtualization can offer more flexibility and better manageability for next generation Internet. With the increasing deployments of virtual networks in military and commercial networks, a major challenge is to ensure virtual network survivability against hybrid multiple failures. In this paper, we study the problem of recovering virtual networks affected by hybrid multiple failures in substrate networks and provide an integer linear programming formulation to solve it. We propose a heuristic algorithm to tackle the complexity of the integer linear programming formulation, which includes a faulty virtual network reconfiguration ranking method based on weighted relative entropy, a hybrid multiple failures ranking algorithm, and a virtual node migration method based on weighted relative entropy. In the faulty virtual network reconfiguration ranking method based on weighted relative entropy and virtual node migration method based on weighted relative entropy, multiple ranking indicators are combined in a suitable way based on weighted relative entropy. In the hybrid multiple failures ranking algorithm, the virtual node and its connective virtual links are re-embedded, firstly. Evaluation results show that our heuristic method not only has the best acceptance ratio and normal operation ratio, but also achieves the highest long-term average revenue to cost ratio compared with other virtual network reconfiguration methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Clustering and Coordinated User Scheduling for Cooperative Interference Cancellation on Ultra-High Density Distributed Antenna Systems
Entropy 2018, 20(8), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080616
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes dynamic clustering and user scheduling for previously conceived inter-cluster interference cancellation scheme on ultra-high density distributed antenna system (UHD-DAS). UHD-DAS is composed of one central unit (CU) and densely deployed remote radio units (RUs) serving as small cell access points.
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes dynamic clustering and user scheduling for previously conceived inter-cluster interference cancellation scheme on ultra-high density distributed antenna system (UHD-DAS). UHD-DAS is composed of one central unit (CU) and densely deployed remote radio units (RUs) serving as small cell access points. It can enhance spatial spectral efficiency by alleviating traffic load imposed per radio unit; however, intenser small cell deployment revives the inter-cell interference (ICI) problem. Cell clustering, cooperation of multiple RUs, can mitigate ICI partially, whereas inter-cluster interference (ICLI) still limits its possible capacity. Simplified ICLI cancellation based on localized RU cooperation was previously proposed to mitigate interference globally. The resolved issue is that it required frequency reuse distance to fully obtain its interference cancellation ability. This paper introduces dynamic clustering with coordinated user scheduling to ensure reuse distance without extra frequency reuse. Joint dynamic clustering and ICLI cancellation can effectively work and almost reaches ideal performance as full cooperative spatial multiplexing transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Linear Algebraic Beamforming Design for Multiuser MISO Interference Channels: A Reduction in Search Space Dimension
Entropy 2018, 20(6), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20060431
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Near-optimal transmit beamformers are designed for multiuser multiple-input single-output interference channels with slowly time-varying block fading. The main contribution of this article is to provide a method for deriving closed-form solutions to effective beamforming in both low and high signal-to-noise ratio regimes. The
[...] Read more.
Near-optimal transmit beamformers are designed for multiuser multiple-input single-output interference channels with slowly time-varying block fading. The main contribution of this article is to provide a method for deriving closed-form solutions to effective beamforming in both low and high signal-to-noise ratio regimes. The proposed method basically leverages side information obtained from the channel correlation between adjacent coding blocks. More specifically, our methodology is based on a linear algebraic approach, which is more efficient than the optimal scheme based on the Gaussian input in the sense of reducing the average number of search space dimensions for designing the near-optimal transmit beamformers. The proposed method is shown to exhibit near-optimal performance via computer simulations in terms of the average sum-rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed One Time Password Infrastructure for Linux Environments
Entropy 2018, 20(5), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050319
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, there is a lot of critical information and services hosted on computer systems. The proper access control to these resources is essential to avoid malicious actions that could cause huge losses to home and professional users. The access control systems have evolved
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Nowadays, there is a lot of critical information and services hosted on computer systems. The proper access control to these resources is essential to avoid malicious actions that could cause huge losses to home and professional users. The access control systems have evolved from the first password based systems to the modern mechanisms using smart cards, certificates, tokens, biometric systems, etc. However, when designing a system, it is necessary to take into account their particular limitations, such as connectivity, infrastructure or budget. In addition, one of the main objectives must be to ensure the system usability, but this property is usually orthogonal to the security. Thus, the use of password is still common. In this paper, we expose a new password based access control system that aims to improve password security with the minimum impact in the system usability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Fruit-80: A Secure Ultra-Lightweight Stream Cipher for Constrained Environments
Entropy 2018, 20(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20030180
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract
In Fast Software Encryption (FSE) 2015, while presenting a new idea (i.e., the design of stream ciphers with the small internal state by using a secret key, not only in the initialization but also in the keystream generation), Sprout was proposed. Sprout was
[...] Read more.
In Fast Software Encryption (FSE) 2015, while presenting a new idea (i.e., the design of stream ciphers with the small internal state by using a secret key, not only in the initialization but also in the keystream generation), Sprout was proposed. Sprout was insecure and an improved version of Sprout was presented in FSE 2017. We introduced Fruit stream cipher informally in 2016 on the web page of IACR (eprint) and few cryptanalysis were published on it. Fortunately, the main structure of Fruit was resistant. Now, Fruit-80 is presented as a final version which is easier to implement and is secure. The size of LFSR and NFSR in Fruit-80 is only 80 bits (for 80-bit security level), while for resistance to the classical time-memory-data tradeoff (TMDTO) attacks, the internal state size should be at least twice that of the security level. To satisfy this rule and to design a concrete cipher, we used some new design ideas. It seems that the bottleneck of designing an ultra-lightweight stream cipher is TMDTO distinguishing attacks. A countermeasure was suggested, and another countermeasure is proposed here. Fruit-80 is better than other small-state stream ciphers in terms of the initialization speed and area size in hardware. It is possible to redesign many of the stream ciphers and achieve significantly smaller area size by using the new idea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Revisiting Degrees of Freedom of Full-Duplex Systems with Opportunistic Transmission: An Improved User Scaling Law
Entropy 2018, 20(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20030160
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
It was recently studied how to achieve the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF) in a multi-antenna full-duplex system with partial channel state information (CSI). In this paper, we revisit the DoF of a multiple-antenna full-duplex system using opportunistic transmission under the partial CSI,
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It was recently studied how to achieve the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF) in a multi-antenna full-duplex system with partial channel state information (CSI). In this paper, we revisit the DoF of a multiple-antenna full-duplex system using opportunistic transmission under the partial CSI, in which a full-duplex base station having M transmit antennas and M receive antennas supports a set of half-duplex mobile stations (MSs) having a single antenna each. Assuming no self-interference, we present a new hybrid opportunistic scheduling method that achieves the optimal sum DoF under an improved user scaling law. Unlike the state-of-the-art scheduling method, our method is designed in the sense that the scheduling role between downlink MSs and uplink MSs is well-balanced. It is shown that the optimal sum DoF of 2 M is asymptotically achievable provided that the number of MSs scales faster than SNR M , where SNR denotes the signal-to-noise ratio. This result reveals that, in our full-duplex system, better performance on the user scaling law can be obtained without extra CSI, compared to the prior work that showed the required user scaling condition (i.e., the minimum number of MSs for guaranteeing the optimal DoF) of SNR 2 M 1 . Moreover, the average interference decaying rate is analyzed. Numerical evaluation is performed to not only validate our analysis but also show superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Spectral and Energy Efficient Low-Overhead Uplink and Downlink Channel Estimation for 5G Massive MIMO Systems
Entropy 2018, 20(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20020092
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (8544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uplink and Downlink channel estimation in massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems is an intricate issue because of the increasing channel matrix dimensions. The channel feedback overhead using traditional codebook schemes is very large, which consumes more bandwidth and decreases the overall
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Uplink and Downlink channel estimation in massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems is an intricate issue because of the increasing channel matrix dimensions. The channel feedback overhead using traditional codebook schemes is very large, which consumes more bandwidth and decreases the overall system efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to decrease the channel estimation overhead by taking the advantage of sparse attributes and also to optimize the Energy Efficiency (EE) of the system. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel approach by using Compressed-Sensing (CS), Block Iterative-Support-Detection (Block-ISD), Angle-of-Departure (AoD) and Structured Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit (S-CoSaMP) algorithms to reduce the channel estimation overhead and compare them with the traditional algorithms. The CS uses temporal-correlation of time-varying channels to produce Differential-Channel Impulse Response (DCIR) among two CIRs that are adjacent in time-slots. DCIR has greater sparsity than the conventional CIRs as it can be easily compressed. The Block-ISD uses spatial-correlation of the channels to obtain the block-sparsity which results in lower pilot-overhead. AoD quantizes the channels whose path-AoDs variation is slower than path-gains and such information is utilized for reducing the overhead. S-CoSaMP deploys structured-sparsity to obtain reliable Channel-State-Information (CSI). MATLAB simulation results show that the proposed CS based algorithms reduce the feedback and pilot-overhead by a significant percentage and also improve the system capacity as compared with the traditional algorithms. Moreover, the EE level increases with increasing Base Station (BS) density, UE density and lowering hardware impairments level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Fog Computing: Enabling the Management and Orchestration of Smart City Applications in 5G Networks
Entropy 2018, 20(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20010004
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Fog computing extends the cloud computing paradigm by placing resources close to the edges of the network to deal with the upcoming growth of connected devices. Smart city applications, such as health monitoring and predictive maintenance, will introduce a new set of stringent
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Fog computing extends the cloud computing paradigm by placing resources close to the edges of the network to deal with the upcoming growth of connected devices. Smart city applications, such as health monitoring and predictive maintenance, will introduce a new set of stringent requirements, such as low latency, since resources can be requested on-demand simultaneously by multiple devices at different locations. It is then necessary to adapt existing network technologies to future needs and design new architectural concepts to help meet these strict requirements. This article proposes a fog computing framework enabling autonomous management and orchestration functionalities in 5G-enabled smart cities. Our approach follows the guidelines of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) NFV MANO architecture extending it with additional software components. The contribution of our work is its fully-integrated fog node management system alongside the foreseen application layer Peer-to-Peer (P2P) fog protocol based on the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol for the exchange of application service provisioning information between fog nodes. Evaluations of an anomaly detection use case based on an air monitoring application are presented. Our results show that the proposed framework achieves a substantial reduction in network bandwidth usage and in latency when compared to centralized cloud solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Entropy-Based Economic Denial of Sustainability Detection
Entropy 2017, 19(12), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19120649
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their
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In recent years, an important increase in the amount and impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) threats has been reported by the different information security organizations. They typically target the depletion of the computational resources of the victims, hence drastically harming their operational capabilities. Inspired by these methods, Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS) attacks pose a similar motivation, but adapted to Cloud computing environments, where the denial is achieved by damaging the economy of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, the most common EDoS approach is making the offered services unsustainable by exploiting their auto-scaling algorithms. In order to contribute to their mitigation, this paper introduces a novel EDoS detection method based on the study of entropy variations related with metrics taken into account when deciding auto-scaling actuations. Through the prediction and definition of adaptive thresholds, unexpected behaviors capable of fraudulently demand new resource hiring are distinguished. With the purpose of demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal, an experimental scenario adapted to the singularities of the EDoS threats and the assumptions driven by their original definition is described in depth. The preliminary results proved high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle A Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Streaming Algorithm for Reducing Entropy Rate of DASH Bitrate Fluctuation to Improve Mobile Quality of Service
Entropy 2017, 19(9), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19090477
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Dynamic adaptive streaming over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an advanced technology in video streaming to deal with the uncertainty of network states. However, this technology has one drawback as the network states frequently and continuously change. The quality of a video streaming
[...] Read more.
Dynamic adaptive streaming over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an advanced technology in video streaming to deal with the uncertainty of network states. However, this technology has one drawback as the network states frequently and continuously change. The quality of a video streaming fluctuates along with the network changes, and it might reduce the quality of service. In recent years, many researchers have proposed several adaptive streaming algorithms to reduce such changes. However, these algorithms only consider the current state of a network. Thus, these algorithms might result in inaccurate estimates of a video quality in the near term. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method using fuzzy logic and a mathematics moving average technique, in order to reduce mobile video quality fluctuation in Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH). First, we calculate the moving average of the bandwidth and buffer values for a given period. On the basis of differences between real and average values, we propose a fuzzy logic system to deduce the value of the video quality representation for the next request. In addition, we use the entropy rate of a bandwidth measurement sequence to measure the predictable/stabilization of our method. The experiment results show that our proposed method reduces video quality fluctuation as well as improves 40% of bandwidth utilization compared to existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Sleep Information Gathering Protocol Using CoAP for Sleep Care
Entropy 2017, 19(9), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19090450
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
There has been a growing interest in sleep management recently, and sleep care services using mobile or wearable devices are under development. However, devices with one sensor have limitations in analyzing various sleep states. If Internet of Things (IoT) technology, which collects information
[...] Read more.
There has been a growing interest in sleep management recently, and sleep care services using mobile or wearable devices are under development. However, devices with one sensor have limitations in analyzing various sleep states. If Internet of Things (IoT) technology, which collects information from multiple sensors and analyzes them in an integrated manner, can be used then various sleep states can be more accurately measured. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a Smart Model for Sleep Care to provide a service to measure and analyze the sleep state using various sensors. In this model, we designed and implemented a Sleep Information Gathering Protocol to transmit the information measured between physical sensors and sleep sensors. Experiments were conducted to compare the throughput and the consumed power of this new protocol with those of the protocols used in the existing service—we achieved the throughput of about two times and 20% reduction in power consumption, which has confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. We judge that this protocol is meaningful as it can be applied to a Smart Model for Sleep Care that incorporates IoT technology and allows expanded sleep care if used together with services for treating sleep disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Collaborative Service Selection via Ensemble Learning in Mixed Mobile Network Environments
Entropy 2017, 19(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19070358
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Mobile Service selection is an important but challenging problem in service and mobile computing. Quality of service (QoS) predication is a critical step in service selection in 5G network environments. The traditional methods, such as collaborative filtering (CF), suffer from a series of
[...] Read more.
Mobile Service selection is an important but challenging problem in service and mobile computing. Quality of service (QoS) predication is a critical step in service selection in 5G network environments. The traditional methods, such as collaborative filtering (CF), suffer from a series of defects, such as failing to handle data sparsity. In mobile network environments, the abnormal QoS data are likely to result in inferior prediction accuracy. Unfortunately, these problems have not attracted enough attention, especially in a mixed mobile network environment with different network configurations, generations, or types. An ensemble learning method for predicting missing QoS in 5G network environments is proposed in this paper. There are two key principles: one is the newly proposed similarity computation method for identifying similar neighbors; the other is the extended ensemble learning model for discovering and filtering fake neighbors from the preliminary neighbors set. Moreover, three prediction models are also proposed, two individual models and one combination model. They are used for utilizing the user similar neighbors and servicing similar neighbors, respectively. Experimental results conducted in two real-world datasets show our approaches can produce superior prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Performance Evaluation of a Context Information-Based Optimized Handover Scheme in 5G Networks
Entropy 2017, 19(7), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19070329
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Recently, green networks are considered as one of the hottest topics in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially in mobile communication networks. In a green network, energy saving of network nodes such as base stations (BSs), switches, and servers should be achieved efficiently.
[...] Read more.
Recently, green networks are considered as one of the hottest topics in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially in mobile communication networks. In a green network, energy saving of network nodes such as base stations (BSs), switches, and servers should be achieved efficiently. In this paper, we consider a heterogeneous network architecture in 5G networks with separated data and control planes, where basically a macro cell manages control signals and a small cell manages data traffic. Then, we propose an optimized handover scheme based on context information such as reference signal received power, speed of user equipment (UE), traffic load, call admission control level, and data type. In this paper, the main objective of the proposed optimal handover is either to reduce the number of handovers or the total energy consumption of BSs. To this end, we develop optimization problems with either the minimization of the number of total handovers or the minimization of energy consumption of BSs as the objective function of the optimization problem. The solution of the optimization problem is obtained by particle swarm optimization, since the developed optimization problem is an NP hard problem. Performance analysis results via simulation based on various probability distributions of the characteristics of UE and BS show that the proposed optimized handover based on context information performs better than the previous call admission control based handover scheme, from the perspective of the number of handovers and total energy consumption. We also show that the proposed handover scheme can efficiently reduce either the number of handovers or the total energy consumption by applying either handover minimization or energy minimization depending on the objective of the application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle On the Definition of Diversity Order Based on Renyi Entropy for Frequency Selective Fading Channels
Entropy 2017, 19(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19040179
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Outage probabilities are important measures of the performance of wireless communication systems, but to obtain outage probabilities it is necessary to first determine detailed system parameters, followed by complicated calculations. When there are multiple candidates of diversity techniques applicable for a system, the
[...] Read more.
Outage probabilities are important measures of the performance of wireless communication systems, but to obtain outage probabilities it is necessary to first determine detailed system parameters, followed by complicated calculations. When there are multiple candidates of diversity techniques applicable for a system, the diversity order can be used to roughly but quickly compare the techniques for a wide range of operating environments. For a system transmitting over frequency selective fading channels, the diversity order can be defined as the number of multi-paths if multi-paths have all equal energy. However, diversity order may not be adequately defined when the energy values are different. In order to obtain a rough value of diversity order, one may use the number of multi-paths or the reciprocal value of the multi-path energy variance. Such definitions are not very useful for evaluating the performance of diversity techniques since the former is meaningful only when the target outage probability is extremely small, while the latter is reasonable when the target outage probability is very large. In this paper, we propose a new definition of diversity order for frequency selective fading channels. The proposed scheme is based on Renyi entropy, which is widely used in biology and many other fields. We provide various simulation results to show that the diversity order using the proposed definition is tightly correlated with the corresponding outage probability, and thus the proposed scheme can be used for quickly selecting the best diversity technique among multiple candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to Data Analysis in 5G Networks
Entropy 2017, 19(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19020074
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
5G networks expect to provide significant advances in network management compared to traditional mobile infrastructures by leveraging intelligence capabilities such as data analysis, prediction, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. The key idea behind these actions is to facilitate the decision-making process in order
[...] Read more.
5G networks expect to provide significant advances in network management compared to traditional mobile infrastructures by leveraging intelligence capabilities such as data analysis, prediction, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. The key idea behind these actions is to facilitate the decision-making process in order to solve or mitigate common network problems in a dynamic and proactive way. In this context, this paper presents the design of Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks (SELFNET) Analyzer Module, which main objective is to identify suspicious or unexpected situations based on metrics provided by different network components and sensors. The SELFNET Analyzer Module provides a modular architecture driven by use cases where analytic functions can be easily extended. This paper also proposes the data specification to define the data inputs to be taking into account in diagnosis process. This data specification has been implemented with different use cases within SELFNET Project, proving its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Software Defined Networks in Wireless Sensor Architectures
Entropy 2018, 20(4), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20040225
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, different protocols coexist in Internet that provides services to users. Unfortunately, control decisions and distributed management make it hard to control networks. These problems result in an inefficient and unpredictable network behaviour. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network
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Nowadays, different protocols coexist in Internet that provides services to users. Unfortunately, control decisions and distributed management make it hard to control networks. These problems result in an inefficient and unpredictable network behaviour. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network architecture. It intends to be more flexible and to simplify the management in networks with respect to traditional architectures. Each of these aspects are possible because of the separation of control plane (controller) and data plane (switches) in network devices. OpenFlow is the most common protocol for SDN networks that provides the communication between control and data planes. Moreover, the advantage of decoupling control and data planes enables a quick evolution of protocols and also its deployment without replacing data plane switches. In this survey, we review the SDN technology and the OpenFlow protocol and their related works. Specifically, we describe some technologies as Wireless Sensor Networks and Wireless Cellular Networks and how SDN can be included within them in order to solve their challenges. We classify different solutions for each technology attending to the problem that is being fixed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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