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Special Issue "Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Mark Lemon

Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD), School of Engineering and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy technologies and demand management; systems thinking and education for sustainability; integrative methods and trans-disciplinary skills; modern methods of construction; trust and knowledge in socio-technical systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Andy Wright

Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD), School of Engineering and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy in buildings; climate change and buildings; modelling; monitoring buildings; building retrofit

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, The relationship between energy, the environment and sustainable development is a complex one that is not only context specific in terms of geographical location it is also dynamic in terms of changes over time. This complexity can force us back into disciplinary specialisms, or silos, within which excellent work can be carried out but this may not readily translate into practice. Innovations in solar energy technology may well generate electricity efficiently but might only be acceptable to some communities if cultural constraints relating to power and gender relations are addressed. This simple example highlights both the need for technical innovation but also for advances in our understanding of how that technology might align with these different contexts. This special issue on energy, environment and sustainable development will present a spectrum of studies undertaken by the Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development with national, international and practitioner partners. These will range from those relating to technical innovation (e.g. electrochromic glazing, nano-technology and photo-voltaic film) to work that is predominantly cultural and behavioural in its focus (e.g. energy use and demand management within social housing). Running through the issue however will be the recognition that to be useful, in terms of enhanced sustainability, energy related research must align with the contexts into which it is to be applied and as such the research needs to be able to reflect the complexity of those contexts. In consequence, technical studies need to access qualitative insight, and an understanding of cultural context alone cannot generate appropriate energy technologies. The underlying narrative of the special issue will be the need to address, in a systematic manner, issues of multi-disciplinarity and trans-disciplinarity as they relate to the generation and use of energy and to do so in such a way that does not compromise disciplinary excellence. Professor Mark Lemon,Dr Andy Wright Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

multi-disciplinary practice, multiple perspectives technology and energy related  behaviour

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Energy Management in Prosumer Communities: A Coordinated Approach
Energies 2016, 9(7), 562; doi:10.3390/en9070562
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The introduction of uncontrollable renewable energy is having a positive impact on our health, the climate, and the economy, but it is also pushing the limits of the power system. The main reason for this is that, in any power system, the generation
[...] Read more.
The introduction of uncontrollable renewable energy is having a positive impact on our health, the climate, and the economy, but it is also pushing the limits of the power system. The main reason for this is that, in any power system, the generation and consumption must match each other at all times. Thus, if we want to further introduce uncontrollable generation, we need a large ability to manage the demand. However, the ability to control the power consumption of existing demand management approaches is limited, and most of these approaches cannot contribute to the introduction of reneweables, because they do not consider distributed uncontrolled consumption and generation in the control. Furthermore, these methods do not allow users to exchange or jointly manage their power generation and consumption. In this context, we propose an augmented energy management model for prosumers (i.e., producer and consumer). This model considers controlled and uncontrolled generation and consumption, as well as the prosumer’s ability (i) to plan the intended power consumption; and (ii) to manage real-time deviations from the intended consumption. We apply this model to the energy management of prosumer communities, by allowing the prosumers to coordinate their power consumption plan, to manage the deviations from the intended consumption, and to help each other by compensating deviations. The proposed approach seeks to enhance the power system, and to enable a prosumer society that takes account social and environmental issues, as well as each prosumer’s quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective
Energies 2016, 9(6), 401; doi:10.3390/en9060401
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
PDF Full-text (8538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of
[...] Read more.
With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL)-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP) feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural gas export levels leads to a small reduction in GDP (0.04%–0.17%). Higher exports also increases U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and electricity prices (1.1%–7.2%). We also evaluate the impacts of natural gas exports in the presence of a Clean Energy Standard (CES) for electricity. In this case, the GDP impacts are similar, but the electricity and transport sector impacts are different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Exploring Local and Community Capacity to Reduce Fuel Poverty: The Case of Home Energy Advice Visits in the UK
Energies 2016, 9(4), 276; doi:10.3390/en9040276
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Local delivery of support to householders to reduce the exposure to, and impacts of, fuel poverty is attracting increasing policymaker interest, but there is a dearth of empirical research that describes and evaluates local support schemes. Community organisations are viewed as having great
[...] Read more.
Local delivery of support to householders to reduce the exposure to, and impacts of, fuel poverty is attracting increasing policymaker interest, but there is a dearth of empirical research that describes and evaluates local support schemes. Community organisations are viewed as having great potential to aid this delivery, but research on how this could be achieved is scarce. The research presented in this paper responds to these needs through an exploratory study of the delivery of home energy advice visits in the UK. Data were collected through interviews and supporting documents from twelve projects and analysis examined the inter-relationships between the process, delivered outputs and impacts of each project. The research findings suggest that long-term local professional initiatives appear to be most effective at reaching and providing support to fuel poor households across a local area. Community organisations appear to have some potential to fill gaps in local provision and can assist professional initiatives, particularly through signposting, but a lack of volunteer capacity ultimately constrains their impact. Issues identified for further study include: how local support services can be resourced and delivered nationwide; trade-offs between pursuing climate change and fuel poverty agendas; a need for more robust evidence of impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle On the Front Lines of a Sustainable Transportation Fleet: Applications of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology for Transit and School Buses
Energies 2016, 9(4), 230; doi:10.3390/en9040230
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The electricity generation/supply and transportation sectors are the two largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S., and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is a rapidly emerging solution to reduce these emissions with the adoption of battery-electric (BE) vehicles. Deployments of BE transit
[...] Read more.
The electricity generation/supply and transportation sectors are the two largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S., and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is a rapidly emerging solution to reduce these emissions with the adoption of battery-electric (BE) vehicles. Deployments of BE transit and school buses are expected to have larger battery capacities than passenger vehicles, making them more feasible candidates for V2G service. Five electricity generation regions are considered for cash flow analysis of BE and diesel transit and school buses over their entire respective lifetimes with the allowance of V2G services’ net revenue. Besides, the environmental benefits of using the V2G system are studied in place of combustion power generation plants for the regulation services of each study region. Air emission externalities are another crucial issue for bus operations because buses are operated near highly populated areas, so these externalities are also studied in this research with the benefits of a V2G emission reduction potential taken into account. The analysis concluded that BE transit and school buses with V2G application have potential to reduce electricity generation related greenhouse-gas emissions by 1067 and 1420 tons of CO2 equivalence (average), and eliminate $13,000 and $18,300 air pollution externalities (average), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of PV Adoption in the UK and Their Implications for the Smart Grid
Energies 2016, 9(3), 210; doi:10.3390/en9030210
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Distributed renewable electricity generators facilitate decarbonising the electricity network, and the smart grid allows higher renewable penetration while improving efficiency. Smart grid scenarios often emphasise localised control, balancing small renewable generation with consumer electricity demand. This research investigates the applicability of proposed decentralised
[...] Read more.
Distributed renewable electricity generators facilitate decarbonising the electricity network, and the smart grid allows higher renewable penetration while improving efficiency. Smart grid scenarios often emphasise localised control, balancing small renewable generation with consumer electricity demand. This research investigates the applicability of proposed decentralised smart grid scenarios utilising a mixed strategy: quantitative analysis of PV adoption data and qualitative policy analysis focusing on policy design, apparent drivers for adoption of the deviation of observed data from the feed-in tariff impact assessment predictions. Analysis reveals that areas of similar installed PV capacity are clustered, indicating a strong dependence on local conditions for PV adoption. Analysing time series of PV adoption finds that it fits neither neo-classical predictions, nor diffusion of innovation S-curves of adoption cleanly. This suggests the influence of external factors on the decision making process. It is shown that clusters of low installed PV capacity coincide with areas of high population density and vice versa, implying that while visions of locally-balanced smart grids may be viable in certain rural and suburban areas, applicability to urban centres may be limited. Taken in combination, the data analysis, policy impact and socio-psychological drivers of adoption demonstrate the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding and modelling the adoption of technology necessary to enable the future smart grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Mixed Method Approach for Studying User Interaction with Novel Building Control Technology
Energies 2016, 9(3), 215; doi:10.3390/en9030215
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
PDF Full-text (8761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms
[...] Read more.
Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms of data collection methods and procedures. This paper describes and critiques the design of a mixed methods approach for occupant behaviour research. It reviews the methodology developed for a longitudinal study in a real-world office environment where occupants’ experience with a novel facade technology (electrochromic glazing) was investigated. The methodology integrates objective physical measurements, observational data and self-reported experience data. Using data from one day of the study, this paper illustrates how the different sources can be combined in order to derive an in-depth understanding of the interplay between external daylight conditions, characteristics of the facade technology, occupant interaction with the technology and the resulting occupant experience. It was found that whilst the individual methods may be affected by practical limitations, these can be partially offset by combining physical measurements and observations with self-reported data. The paper critically evaluates the individual techniques, as well as the benefits of their integration and makes recommendations for the design of future occupant behaviour studies in real-world settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies
Energies 2016, 9(3), 145; doi:10.3390/en9030145
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative
[...] Read more.
As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Technical, Economical and Social Assessment of Photovoltaics in the Frame of the Net-Metering Law for the Province of Salta, Argentina
Energies 2016, 9(3), 133; doi:10.3390/en9030133
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Central and Northern Argentinean regions possess a high potential for the generation of solar energy. The realization of this potential is an alternative to alleviate the strong dependence on imports of fossil energy and to reduce the CO2 emissions of the country.
[...] Read more.
Central and Northern Argentinean regions possess a high potential for the generation of solar energy. The realization of this potential is an alternative to alleviate the strong dependence on imports of fossil energy and to reduce the CO2 emissions of the country. However, the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) is still in an incipient state. It is undermined by a context of heavily subsidized electricity prices, high equipment and installation costs and a lack of information, training and experience in handling PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economical assessment of the application of the recently enacted net-metering law for promoting renewable energies (RE) in the Province of Salta (Northwest Argentina) for the case of PV. The assessment shows under which conditions and for which types of consumers it is profitable to adopt PV in the context of the law. This analysis is supported by a participatory planning approach as a study of stakeholders’ attitudes towards RE, intentions to adopt PV and their knowledge about the law. The results of this study and the economical analysis serve to provide recommendations aimed at increasing the level of PV adoption in the province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of Electrical Distribution Networks and Balancing Markets in the UK: A New Framework with Applications
Energies 2016, 9(2), 101; doi:10.3390/en9020101
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 9 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a framework for the design and simulation of electrical distribution systems and short term electricity markets specific to the UK. The modelling comprises packages relating to the technical and economic features of the electrical grid. The first package models the medium/low
[...] Read more.
We present a framework for the design and simulation of electrical distribution systems and short term electricity markets specific to the UK. The modelling comprises packages relating to the technical and economic features of the electrical grid. The first package models the medium/low distribution networks with elements such as transformers, voltage regulators, distributed generators, composite loads, distribution lines and cables. This model forms the basis for elementary analysis such as load flow and short circuit calculations and also enables the investigation of effects of integrating distributed resources, voltage regulation, resource scheduling and the like. The second part of the modelling exercise relates to the UK short term electricity market with specific features such as balancing mechanism and bid-offer strategies. The framework is used for investigating methods of voltage regulation using multiple control technologies, to demonstrate the effects of high penetration of wind power on balancing prices and finally use these prices towards achieving demand response through aggregated prosumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Integrated Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in South Africa’s Power Sector
Energies 2015, 8(12), 14380-14406; doi:10.3390/en81212432
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This article presents an integrated assessment conducted in order to explore whether carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be a viable technological option for significantly reducing future CO2 emissions in South Africa. The methodological approach covers a commercial availability analysis, an analysis
[...] Read more.
This article presents an integrated assessment conducted in order to explore whether carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be a viable technological option for significantly reducing future CO2 emissions in South Africa. The methodological approach covers a commercial availability analysis, an analysis of the long-term usable CO2 storage potential (based on storage capacity assessment, energy scenario analysis and source-sink matching), an economic and ecological assessment and a stakeholder analysis. The findings show, that a reliable storage capacity assessment is needed, since only rough figures concerning the effective capacity currently exist. Further constraints on the fast deployment of CCS may be the delayed commercial availability of CCS, significant barriers to increasing the economic viability of CCS, an expected net maximum reduction rate of the power plant’s greenhouse gas emissions of 67%–72%, an increase in other environmental and social impacts, and low public awareness of CCS. One precondition for opting for CCS would be to find robust solutions to these constraints, taking into account that CCS could potentially conflict with other important policy objectives, such as affordable electricity rates to give the whole population access to electricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation
Energies 2015, 8(11), 13255-13264; doi:10.3390/en81112367
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and
[...] Read more.
In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1) the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2) implementation strategies and their impacts; (3) factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4) the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Who Is Behaving? Consequences for Energy Policy of Concept Confusion
Energies 2015, 8(8), 7618-7637; doi:10.3390/en8087618
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policies to reduce household energy use usually target the individual customer. This is probably one explanation to the limited effect of many information policies, because two concepts with different meanings are confused: individual and household. In most contexts, an individual stands for what
[...] Read more.
Policies to reduce household energy use usually target the individual customer. This is probably one explanation to the limited effect of many information policies, because two concepts with different meanings are confused: individual and household. In most contexts, an individual stands for what s/he does, but in the policy context, an individual is taken to represent the entire household. This is not problematic for a single-person household, but, in a multi-person household, activities performed by different household members influence the whole household’s energy use. This paper illuminates problems arising from confusing the concepts of household and individual when developing policies to reduce household energy use. Examples relate to indoor space heating and energy-intensive home-based activities. The results indicate that it is analytically simple to consider individuals at home, as well as their activities using electrical appliances contributing to heating, but much more complicated to take the whole household into consideration. Our model provides a basis for better-targeted information actions to reduce energy use. Also, empirically based models capturing variations between households with different activity patterns are important for developing policies resulting in reduced energy use for space heating in multi-person households. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)

Review

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Open AccessReview Reducing Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: A Critical Assessment of Small-Group Interventions
Energies 2016, 9(3), 172; doi:10.3390/en9030172
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motivating individuals to decrease the environmental impact of their lifestyles could play an important role in reducing energy use and meeting carbon reduction commitments in developed countries. Few approaches which encourage voluntary changes in behaviour result in substantial reductions in energy use, however,
[...] Read more.
Motivating individuals to decrease the environmental impact of their lifestyles could play an important role in reducing energy use and meeting carbon reduction commitments in developed countries. Few approaches which encourage voluntary changes in behaviour result in substantial reductions in energy use, however, particularly over the longer term. An exception to this general trend is small-group interventions which use group participation and which target collections of behaviours including energy use. Through a critical examination of published data this paper considers the energy and carbon emission reductions achieved by such initiatives, the durability of those reductions, and the common elements which may contribute to their success. Participants in small-group interventions reduced their energy use and carbon emissions by approximately 20% within a year. There is also some evidence that these reductions were lasting and that participants continued to make changes to their lifestyles after the end of the intervention. The reasonable person model (RPM) is proposed as a useful framework for understanding the success of these small-group interventions. Examination of small-group interventions suggests that they provide settings which are supportive of informational needs, and that this may be important to their success in promoting substantial and durable decreases in energy use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessReview Quantifying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Current Status and Trends
Energies 2016, 9(2), 65; doi:10.3390/en9020065
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water, energy, and food are lifelines for modern societies. The continuously rising world population, growing desires for higher living standards, and inextricable links among the three sectors make the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus a vibrant research pursuit. For the integrated delivery of WEF systems,
[...] Read more.
Water, energy, and food are lifelines for modern societies. The continuously rising world population, growing desires for higher living standards, and inextricable links among the three sectors make the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus a vibrant research pursuit. For the integrated delivery of WEF systems, quantifying WEF connections helps understand synergies and trade-offs across the water, energy, and food sectors, and thus is a critical initial step toward integrated WEF nexus modeling and management. However, current WEF interconnection quantifications encounter methodological hurdles. Also, existing calculation results are scattered across a wide collection of studies in multiple disciplines, which increases data collection and interpretation difficulties. To advance robust WEF nexus quantifications and further contribute to integrated WEF systems modeling and management, this study: (i) summarizes the estimate results to date on WEF interconnections; (ii) analyzes methodological and practical challenges associated with WEF interconnection calculations; and (iii) points out opportunities for enabling robust WEF nexus quantifications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Ellegård, K. and Palm, J. Who Is Behaving? Consequences for Energy Policy of Concept Confusion. Energies 2015, 8, 7618–7637
Energies 2016, 9(1), 63; doi:10.3390/en9010063
Received: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 21 January 2016
PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We wish to make the following correction to the published paper [1]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)

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