Special Issue "Colloidal Crystals"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Qingfeng Yan

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: colloidal self-assembly; block copolymer self-assembly; piezoelectric and ferroelectric single crystals; organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite single crystals; black phosphorus single crystals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As an old material, colloidal particles have long been used as the major components of various industrial products, such as additives in coating and paint, foods, ink products, chromatographic support, paper, cosmetics, photographic films, electronic packaging technology and many others, due to their susceptibility to different chemical modification and excellent mechanical properties. Particularly, monodisperse colloidal spheres can form a 2D or 3D colloidal crystal with a highly ordered structure, via a so-called self-assembly process. Colloidal crystals have stimulated widespread interest in recent decades. On the one hand, the self-assembly of colloidal spheres provides a fascinating model for studying the crystallizing behavior of atoms. On the other hand, colloidal crystals themselves have demonstrated application in a wide variety of fields, such as photonic crystal, phononic crystal, catalysis, wetting, display, energy storage and conversion, chemical and biological sensing, and templates for chemical synthesis, cell culture, and nanofabrication.

The objective of the Special Issue “Colloidal Crystals” is to provide a unique forum allowing scientists working in this field to present their recent results in any of the research areas related to colloidal crystals. It should be pointed out that the topics summarized under the keywords should be considered only as some potential examples as this issue is actually open for any advanced topics in the wide field of colloidal crystals.

Dr. Qingfeng Yan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fabrication of colloidal crystals
  • mechanism of colloidal self-assembly
  • nanofabrication based on colloidal crystal
  • colloidal photonic crystals and phononic crystals
  • non-spherical colloidal crystals
  • binary colloidal crystals
  • application of colloidal crystals in emerging areas

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Self-Assembly Kinetics of Colloidal Particles inside Monodispersed Micro-Droplet and Fabrication of Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Micro-Particles
Crystals 2016, 6(10), 122; doi:10.3390/cryst6100122
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new microfluidic approach to preparing anisotropic colloidal photonic crystal microparticles is developed and the self-assembly kinetics of colloidal nanoparticles is discussed. Based on the “coffee ring” effect in the self-assembly process of colloidal silica particle in strong solvent extraction environment, we successfully
[...] Read more.
A new microfluidic approach to preparing anisotropic colloidal photonic crystal microparticles is developed and the self-assembly kinetics of colloidal nanoparticles is discussed. Based on the “coffee ring” effect in the self-assembly process of colloidal silica particle in strong solvent extraction environment, we successfully prepared anisotropic photonic crystal microparticles with different shapes and improved optical properties. The shapes and optical properties of photonic crystal microparticles can be controlled by adjusting the droplet size and extraction rate. We studied the self-assembly mechanism of colloidal silica particles in strong solvent extraction environment, which has potential applications in a variety of fields including optical communication technology, environmental response, photo-catalysis and chromic material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessCommunication Photonic Crystals with an Eye Pattern Similar to Peacock Tail Feathers
Crystals 2016, 6(8), 99; doi:10.3390/cryst6080099
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A facile fabrication of photonic crystals (PCs) with an eye pattern similar to peacock tail feathers has been demonstrated by self-assembly of colloidal particles in a sandwich mode. The sandwich mode is formed by superhydrophilic flat substrate sandwiching the poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-arylic acid) (Poly(St-MMA-AA))
[...] Read more.
A facile fabrication of photonic crystals (PCs) with an eye pattern similar to peacock tail feathers has been demonstrated by self-assembly of colloidal particles in a sandwich mode. The sandwich mode is formed by superhydrophilic flat substrate sandwiching the poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-arylic acid) (Poly(St-MMA-AA)) latex suspension (2 wt%) by the hydrophobic one. The patterns are characterized by optical microscopy images, reflection spectra, and the relative scanning electronic microscope images. This work will provide beneficial help for the understanding of the self-assembly process of colloidal crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach to Quantitatively Assess the Uniformity of Binary Colloidal Crystal Assemblies
Crystals 2016, 6(8), 84; doi:10.3390/cryst6080084
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colloidal self-assembly into highly ordered binary systems represents a versatile and inexpensive approach to generate well defined surface topographical features with submicron resolution. In addition, the use of surface-functionalized particles where each particle bears a different surface functionality enables the generation of highly
[...] Read more.
Colloidal self-assembly into highly ordered binary systems represents a versatile and inexpensive approach to generate well defined surface topographical features with submicron resolution. In addition, the use of surface-functionalized particles where each particle bears a different surface functionality enables the generation of highly resolved surface chemical patterns. Such topographical, as well as chemical features, are of great interest in biomaterials science particularly in the context of investigating and controlling the cellular response. While colloidal crystals have been used to generate a wide range of surface patterns, it has not been possible until now to quantitatively describe the degree of uniformity within such systems. In the present work we describe a novel approach to quantitatively assess the uniformity within binary colloidal assemblies based on image processing methods, primarily the Circular Hough Transform and distance calculations. We believe that the methodology presented here will find broad application in the field of colloidal crystals to quantitatively describe the integrity and homogeneity of assemblies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption, Desorption, Surface Diffusion, Lattice Defect Formation, and Kink Incorporation Processes of Particles on Growth Interfaces of Colloidal Crystals with Attractive Interactions
Crystals 2016, 6(7), 80; doi:10.3390/cryst6070080
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
PDF Full-text (3067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in
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Good model systems are required in order to understand crystal growth processes because, in many cases, precise incorporation processes of atoms or molecules cannot be visualized easily at the atomic or molecular level. Using a transmission-type optical microscope, we have successfully observed in situ adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, lattice defect formation, and kink incorporation of particles on growth interfaces of colloidal crystals of polystyrene particles in aqueous sodium polyacrylate solutions. Precise surface transportation and kink incorporation processes of the particles into the colloidal crystals with attractive interactions were observed in situ at the particle level. In particular, contrary to the conventional expectations, the diffusion of particles along steps around a two-dimensional island of the growth interface was not the main route for kink incorporation. This is probably due to the number of bonds between adsorbed particles and particles in a crystal; the number exceeds the limit at which a particle easily exchanges its position to the adjacent one along the step. We also found novel desorption processes of particles from steps to terraces, attributing them to the assistance of attractive forces from additionally adsorbing particles to the particles on the steps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals of Zirconia by Electrodeposition in a Colloidal Crystals Template
Crystals 2016, 6(7), 76; doi:10.3390/cryst6070076
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
PDF Full-text (1318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional photonic crystals of zirconia were prepared by electrodeposition in a colloidal crystals template following calcination at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the photonic crystals of zirconia. It was found that hydrated
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Three-dimensional photonic crystals of zirconia were prepared by electrodeposition in a colloidal crystals template following calcination at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and reflectance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the photonic crystals of zirconia. It was found that hydrated zirconium ions could penetrate the colloidal crystals template and reach the substrate easily by electrodeposition, which resulted in stronger bonding between the substrate and the as-deposited membrane. Moreover, the electrodeposited membrane had low water content, leading to a low amount of shrinkage during calcination. Both these properties could suppress detachment from the substrate upon removal of the colloidal crystals template. Therefore, the three-dimensional photonic crystals of zirconia synthesized in this study exhibited very good preservation of the ordered structures of the colloidal crystals template with a high density. A peak of reflection higher than 70% was formed in the reflectance spectrum because of the strong diffraction of the ordered structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Colloidal Photonic Crystals Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Structural Colors
Crystals 2016, 6(5), 61; doi:10.3390/cryst6050061
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPhCs) containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) present tunable structural colors. PS CPhC color films containing a high concentration of AgNPs were prepared using self-assembly process through gravitational sedimentation method. High-concentration AgNPs were deposited on the bottom of the substrate
[...] Read more.
Polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPhCs) containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) present tunable structural colors. PS CPhC color films containing a high concentration of AgNPs were prepared using self-assembly process through gravitational sedimentation method. High-concentration AgNPs were deposited on the bottom of the substrate and acted as black materials to absorb background and scattering light. Brilliant structural colors were enhanced because of the absorption of incoherent scattering light, and color saturation was increased by the distribution AgNPs on the PS CPhC surfaces. The vivid iridescent structural colors of AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhC films were based on Bragg diffraction and backward scattering absorption using AgNPs. The photonic stop band of PS CPhCs and AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhCs were measured by UV–visible reflection spectrometry and calculated based on the Bragg–Snell law. In addition, the tunable structural colors of AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhC films were evaluated using color measurements according to the Commission International d’Eclairage standard colorimetric system. This paper presents a simple and inexpensive method to produce tunable structural colors for numerous applications, such as textile fabrics, bionic colors, catalysis, and paints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Morphological and Structural Control of Organic Monolayer Colloidal Crystal Based on Plasma Etching and Its Application in Fabrication of Ordered Gold Nanostructured Arrays
Crystals 2016, 6(10), 126; doi:10.3390/cryst6100126
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The organic monolayer colloidal crystals, which are usually prepared by self-assembling, could be used as templates, due to their interstitial geometry, for the periodically arranged nanostructured arrays, which have important applications in many fields, such as photonic crystals, information storage, super-hydrophobicity, biological and
[...] Read more.
The organic monolayer colloidal crystals, which are usually prepared by self-assembling, could be used as templates, due to their interstitial geometry, for the periodically arranged nanostructured arrays, which have important applications in many fields, such as photonic crystals, information storage, super-hydrophobicity, biological and chemical sensing. Obviously, the structures of the obtained arrays mainly depend on those of the templates. However, the self-assembled monolayer colloidal crystal is exclusive in structure and for its hexagonal close-packed colloidal arrangement, leading to the limitation of the monolayer colloidal crystal as the template for the nanostructured arrays. Therefore, structural diversity is important in order for colloidal crystals to be used as the templates for various nanostructured arrays. Recently, there have been some reports on the morphological and structural manipulation of the organic monolayer colloidal crystals. In this review article, we focus on the recent progress in morphological and structural manipulation of polystyrene monolayer colloidal crystals based on plasma etching, and its application in the fabrication of the ordered gold nanostructured arrays with different structures, mainly including close-packed monolayer colloidal crystal and its transferrable property; structural manipulation based on plasma etching; and fabrication of gold nanostructured arrays based on varied monolayer colloidal crystals as template. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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Open AccessReview Bottom-Up Assembly and Applications of Photonic Materials
Crystals 2016, 6(5), 54; doi:10.3390/cryst6050054
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The assembly of colloidal building-blocks is an efficient, inexpensive and flexible approach for the fabrication of a wide variety of photonic materials with designed shapes and large areas. In this review, the various assembly routes to the fabrication of colloidal crystals and their
[...] Read more.
The assembly of colloidal building-blocks is an efficient, inexpensive and flexible approach for the fabrication of a wide variety of photonic materials with designed shapes and large areas. In this review, the various assembly routes to the fabrication of colloidal crystals and their post-assembly modifications to the production of photonic materials are first described. Then, the emerging applications of the colloidal photonic structures in various fields such as biological and chemical sensing, anti-reflection, photovoltaics, and light extraction are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Crystals)
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