Special Issue "Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science"

A special issue of Condensed Matter (ISSN 2410-3896).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Augusto Marcelli

Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Rome) Italy
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Interests: synchrotron radiation research; synchrotron radiation instrumentation: IR and x-ray optics; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; circular magnetic x-ray dichroism; time resolved concurrent experiments; high Tc superconductors and quantum materials; multiple scattering theory applied to core level x-ray absorption spectra; dust and aerosol characterization and ultra-trace detection; FTIR spectromicroscopy and imaging applied to protein, cells and tissues
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Valter Maggi

Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 1, I-20126 Milano, Italy
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Interests: mineral dust transport reconstruction and concentration and size distribution of atmospheric dust; paleoclimatology from ice cores in polar and mid-latitude glaciers, Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets, quaternary geology, ice deposits in hypogean environments; mineral dust climate reconstruction
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Cunde Xiao

1 State Key Laboratory of Land Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, 100875 Beijing, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000 Lanzhou, China
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Interests: cryosphere and climate change; high Asia cryosphere observation; sea ice reconstruction in Antarctica ice core; paleoclimatology from Greenland and Antarctica ice cores; cryospheric change and sustainable development; cryosphere service function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On behalf of Condensed Matter, we would like to invite papers for consideration in a Special Issue dedicated to “Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science”, which will cover climatic and environmental research, based on the detection and characterization of minerals and dust present in ice cores and aerosols in the atmosphere; an interdisciplinary, modern and strategic research field looking at climate and pollution on a local and global scale.

Despite increasing interest and great efforts, in particular, over the last decade, there is a lack of consensus on many issues associated with environmental and climatic problems. The amount of research regarding the environment, mountains and polar glaciers and the cryosphere in general, are continuously increasing. Ice cores, permafrost and snow represent extraordinary climatic and environmental information archives that are seriously at risk because of the increasing temperatures on Earth. Research using new experimental methods may help to investigate the unique and precious archives with time and spatial resolutions not even imaginable a few years ago. However, new ideas and approaches are required to improve and extend the characterization of ice and snow, extremely complex and fragile materials and their organic and inorganic contents. Modern techniques could be also applied to other environmental problems, where the accurate detection and characterization of dust and aerosols present in the atmosphere is highly required. 

One of the objectives of this issue of Condensed Matter is certainly to trigger interest in climatic and environmental research and show the available experimental techniques to support the emerging trends in Cryospheric Science and to stimulate new ideas.

Sincerely yours,

Prof. Dr. Augusto Marcelli
Prof. Dr. Valter Maggi
Prof. Dr. Cunde Xiao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Condensed Matter is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mineral dust, snow/ice, cryoconite, black carbon, atmospheric pollution, PM particulate matter
  • environmental sciences, mercury geochemistry
  • X-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, elemental coordination

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Contribution of Synchrotron Light for the Characterization of Atmospheric Mineral Dust in Deep Ice Cores: Preliminary Results from the Talos Dome Ice Core (East Antarctica)
Condens. Matter 2018, 3(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3030025
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
The possibility of finding a stratigraphically intact ice sequence with a potential basal age exceeding one million years in Antarctica is giving renewed interest to deep ice coring operations. But the older and deeper the ice, the more impactful are the post-depositional processes
[...] Read more.
The possibility of finding a stratigraphically intact ice sequence with a potential basal age exceeding one million years in Antarctica is giving renewed interest to deep ice coring operations. But the older and deeper the ice, the more impactful are the post-depositional processes that alter and modify the information entrapped within ice layers. Understanding in situ post-depositional processes occurring in the deeper part of ice cores is essential to comprehend how the climatic signals are preserved in deep ice, and consequently how to construct the paleoclimatic records. New techniques and new interpretative tools are required for these purposes. In this respect, the application of synchrotron light to microgram-sized atmospheric dust samples extracted from deep ice cores is extremely promising. We present here preliminary results on two sets of samples retrieved from the Talos Dome Antarctic ice core. A first set is composed by samples from the stratigraphically intact upper part of the core, the second by samples retrieved from the deeper part of the core that is still undated. Two techniques based on synchrotron light allowed us to characterize the dust samples, showing that mineral particles entrapped in the deepest ice layers display altered elemental composition and anomalies concerning iron geochemistry, besides being affected by inter-particle aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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Open AccessArticle Microdrop Deposition Technique: Preparation and Characterization of Diluted Suspended Particulate Samples
Condens. Matter 2018, 3(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3030021
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The analysis of particulate matter (PM) in dilute solutions is an important target for environmental, geochemical, and biochemical research. Here, we show how microdrop technology may allow the control, through the evaporation of small droplets, of the deposition of insoluble materials dispersed in
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The analysis of particulate matter (PM) in dilute solutions is an important target for environmental, geochemical, and biochemical research. Here, we show how microdrop technology may allow the control, through the evaporation of small droplets, of the deposition of insoluble materials dispersed in a solution on a well-defined area with a specific spatial pattern. Using this technology, the superficial density of the deposited solute can be accurately controlled. In particular, it becomes possible to deposit an extremely reduced amount of insoluble material, in the order of few μg on a confined area, thus allowing a relatively high superficial density to be reached within a limited time. In this work, we quantitatively compare the microdrop technique for the preparation of particulate matter samples with the classical filtering technique. After having been optimized, the microdrop technique allows obtaining a more homogeneous deposition and may limit the sample amount up to a factor 25. This method is potentially suitable for many novel applications in different scientific fields such as demanding spectroscopic studies looking at the mineral fraction contained in ice cores or to pollution investigations looking at the detection of heavy metals present in ultra-trace in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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Open AccessArticle The Study of Characteristic Environmental Sites Affected by Diverse Sources of Mineral Matter Using Compositional Data Analysis
Condens. Matter 2018, 3(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3020016
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
Compositional data analysis was applied on mineral element concentrations (i.e., Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Sr) content in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 simultaneous measurements at three characteristic environmental sites: kerbside, background and rural site. Different possible sources of
[...] Read more.
Compositional data analysis was applied on mineral element concentrations (i.e., Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Sr) content in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 simultaneous measurements at three characteristic environmental sites: kerbside, background and rural site. Different possible sources of mineral trace elements affecting the PM in the considered sites were highlighted. Particularly, results show that compositional data analysis allows for the assessment of chemical/physical differences between mineral element concentrations of PM. These differences can be associated with both different kinds of involved mineral sources and different mechanisms of accumulation/dispersion of PM at the considered sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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Open AccessArticle Decadal Climate Change in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, A Representative Area of the Arctic
Condens. Matter 2018, 3(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3020012
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
In recent decades, global warming hiatus/slowdown has attracted considerable attention and has been strongly debated. Many studies suggested that the Arctic is undergoing rapid warming and significantly contributes to a continual global warming trend rather than a hiatus. In this study, we evaluated
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In recent decades, global warming hiatus/slowdown has attracted considerable attention and has been strongly debated. Many studies suggested that the Arctic is undergoing rapid warming and significantly contributes to a continual global warming trend rather than a hiatus. In this study, we evaluated the climate changes of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, a representative location of the northern North Atlantic sector of the Arctic, based on observational records from 1975–2014. The results showed that the annual warming rate was four times higher than the global mean (+0.76 °C·decade−1) and was also much greater than Arctic average. Additionally, the warming trend of Ny-Ålesund started to slow down since 2005–2006, and our estimates showed that there is a 8–9 years-lagged, but significant, correlation between records of Ny-Ålesund and global HadCRUT4 datasets. This finding indicates that the Arctic was likely experiencing a hiatus pattern, which just appeared later than the low-mid latitudes due to transport processes of atmospheric circulations and ocean currents, heat storage effect of cryospheric components, multidecadal variability of Arctic cyclone activities, etc. This case study provides a new perspective on the global warming hiatus/slowdown debate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Post-Depositional Biodegradation Processes of Pollutants on Glacier Surfaces
Condens. Matter 2018, 3(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat3030024
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
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Abstract
Glaciers are important fresh-water reservoirs for our planet. Although they are often located at high elevations or in remote areas, glacial ecosystems are not pristine, as many pollutants can undergo long-range atmospheric transport and be deposited on glacier surface, where they can be
[...] Read more.
Glaciers are important fresh-water reservoirs for our planet. Although they are often located at high elevations or in remote areas, glacial ecosystems are not pristine, as many pollutants can undergo long-range atmospheric transport and be deposited on glacier surface, where they can be stored for long periods of time, and then be released into the down-valley ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics of these pollutants in glaciers is therefore important for assessing their environmental fate. To this aim, it is important to study cryoconite holes, small ponds filled with water and with a layer of sediment, the cryoconite, at the bottom, which occur on the surface of most glaciers. Indeed, these environments are hotspots of biodiversity on glacier surface as they host metabolically active bacterial communities that include generalist taxa able to degrade pollutants. In this work, we aim to review the studies that have already investigated pollutant (e.g., chlorpyrifos and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs)) degradation in cryoconite holes and other supraglacial environmental matrices. These studies have revealed that bacteria play a significant role in pollutant degradation in these habitats and can be positively selected in contaminated environments. We will also provide indication for future research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science)
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