Special Issue "Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Nir Y. Krakauer

Department of Civil Engineering, 193 Steinman Hall, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate change; water resources planning; groundwater; land-atmosphere interaction; sustainable agriculture; urban ecological design; carbon cycle monitoring; renewable energy resource assessment; probabilistic forecasting; data assimilation; model uncertainty assessment
Guest Editor
Dr. Tarendra Lakhankar

NOAA-Cooperative Remote Sensing & Technology (CREST) Center, The City College of the City University of New York ST-103, Steinman Hall, 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 2126505815
Fax: +1 212 650 8097
Interests: utilization of satellite data, Geographical Information System, information technologies to study the impact of climate change and variability on water resource availability and hydrologic responses of both urban and natural watersheds, land use / land cover monitoring, environmental monitoring and assessment, and their sustainable development
Guest Editor
Dr. Ajay K. Jha

Institute of Global Agriculture and Technology Transfer" (IGATT), Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate change adaptation on farm water management; renewable energy source and management; food-water-energy nexus; agriculture and watershed development; natural resource management; rural economic development; climate smart agriculture enterprise and sustainable development
Guest Editor
Dr. Vishnu Pandey

Asian Institute of Technology and Management (AITM), Knowledge Village, Khumaltar Height, P.O.Box: Lalitpur -25, Nepal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate change vulnerability and adaptation in water sector; GIS application in water management; groundwater development and management; hydrological modeling; water-energy-carbon nexus; water resources development and management; socio-economic aspects of water management interventions
Guest Editor
Dr. Pramod K. Jha

Tribhuvan University, Department of Botany, Kirtipur, Nepal
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Interests: Plant ecology, Invasive species, Ethnobotany, Medicinal plants, Vegetation water relations, Climate change impacts
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Naba R. Devkota

Agriculture and Forestry University, Directorate of Research and Extension, Rampur, Nepal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Animal nutrition, Fodder, Mixed farming systems, Livestock smallholding, Agroforestry, Climate resilience

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The people and ecologies of the developing world are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change arising both from global greenhouse gas emissions and from regional aerosol emissions and land use and management practices. This Special Issue welcomes innovative approaches to support human development, sustainability, resilience (including health, nutrition, and gender equity), maintenance of biological diversity, ecosystem services, and rural livelihood. Of interest are original investigations of climate science focusing on the impacts of climate change and effectiveness of adaptation methods, and also review papers and integrations of science, policy, and action for broad-based, sustainable improvements in living standards of farmers, herders, and rural people, as well as of urban and periurban populations.

This special issue is associated with the "International Conference on Biodiversity, Climate Change Assessment, and Impacts on LIvelihood"(http://icbcl17.org), 10-12 January 2017, Kathmandu, Nepal, and with the "International Conference on Technological Advances in Climate-Smart Agriculture and Sustainability"(http://www.tacsas.org/), 16-18 January 2017, Nanded, MS, India.

Dr. Nir Y. Krakauer
Dr. Tarendra Lakhankar
Dr. Ajay K. Jha
Dr. Vishnu Pandey
Dr. Pramod K. Jha
Prof. Dr. Naba R. Devkota
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • regional climate change
  • monsoon
  • climate change impacts
  • rural economic development
  • land cover and land use change
  • resilience
  • sustainability
  • environmental justice
  • ecosystem services
  • agroecosystems
  • development studies
  • pest management
  • invasive species

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Predicting Impact of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Tropical Rivers
Climate 2017, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/cli5030058
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
Predicting the impact of climate change and human activities on river systems is imperative for effective management of aquatic ecosystems. Unique information can be derived that is critical to the survival of aquatic species under dynamic environmental conditions. Therefore, the response of a
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Predicting the impact of climate change and human activities on river systems is imperative for effective management of aquatic ecosystems. Unique information can be derived that is critical to the survival of aquatic species under dynamic environmental conditions. Therefore, the response of a tropical river system under climate and land-use changes from the aspects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were evaluated. Nine designed projected climate change scenarios and three future land-use scenarios were integrated into the Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model to determine the impact of climate change and land-use on water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration using basin-wide simulation of river system in Malaysia. The model performance coefficients showed a good correlation between simulated and observed streamflow, water temperature, and DO concentration in a monthly time step simulation. The Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for streamflow was 0.88 for the calibration period and 0.82 for validation period. For water temperature and DO concentration, data from three stations were calibrated and the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for both water temperature and DO ranged from 0.53 to 0.70. The output of the calibrated model under climate change scenarios show that increased rainfall and air temperature do not affects DO concentration and water temperature as much as the condition of a decrease in rainfall and increase in air temperature. The regression model on changes in streamflow, DO concentration, and water temperature under the climate change scenarios illustrates that scenarios that produce high to moderate streamflow, produce small predicted change in water temperatures and DO concentrations compared with the scenarios that produced a low streamflow. It was observed that climate change slightly affects the relationship between water temperatures and DO concentrations in the tropical rivers that we include in this study. This study demonstrates the potential impact of climate and future land-use changes on tropical rivers and how they might affect the future ecological systems. Most rivers in suburban areas will be ecologically unsuitable to some aquatic species. In comparison, rivers surrounded by agricultural and forestlands are less affected by the projected climate and land-uses changes. The results from this study provide a basis in which resource management and mitigation actions can be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change and Population Growth: Case of the Klela Basin in Southern Mali
Climate 2017, 5(3), 45; doi:10.3390/cli5030045
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Groundwater in the Klela basin in Mali, a subbasin of the Bani basin (one of the main tributaries of the Niger River), is required for domestic use, irrigation and livestock. Furthermore, water supply of the city of Sikasso directly depends on the groundwater
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Groundwater in the Klela basin in Mali, a subbasin of the Bani basin (one of the main tributaries of the Niger River), is required for domestic use, irrigation and livestock. Furthermore, water supply of the city of Sikasso directly depends on the groundwater resources, which are under pressure caused by increased water demand as well as climate variability and climate change. As a consequence, freshwater availability is being threatened which can have a direct negative impact on irrigation agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate future behavior of groundwater resources in the context of climate change and population growth using socio-economic and population growth scenarios for water demand and the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) data for calculating groundwater recharge using the Thornthwaite model. The WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) model was applied to balance water availability and demand and to compute changes in groundwater storage up to 2050. The overall results show that groundwater recharge as well as storage is decreasing over time, especially in the 2030s which can lead to severe agricultural droughts in this period. Recharge declined by approximatively 49% and stored groundwater by 24% over the study period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Hydro-Climatic Projections with Bias-Correction in Sahelian Niger Basin, West Africa
Climate 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/cli5010008
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
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Abstract
Climate simulations in West Africa have been attributed with large uncertainties. Global climate projections are not consistent with changes in observations at the regional or local level of the Niger basin, making management of hydrological projects in the basin uncertain. This study evaluates
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Climate simulations in West Africa have been attributed with large uncertainties. Global climate projections are not consistent with changes in observations at the regional or local level of the Niger basin, making management of hydrological projects in the basin uncertain. This study evaluates the potential of using the quantile mapping bias correction to improve the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) outputs for use in hydrological impact studies. Rainfall and temperature projections from 8 CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCM) were bias corrected using the quantile mapping approach. Impacts of climate change was evaluated with bias corrected rainfall, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The IHACRES hydrological model was adapted to the Niger basin and used to simulate impacts of climate change on discharge under present and future conditions. Bias correction with quantile mapping significantly improved the accuracy of rainfall and temperature simulations compared to observations. The mean of six efficiency coefficients used for monthly rainfall comparisons of 8 GCMs to the observed ranged from 0.69 to 0.91 and 0.84 to 0.96 before and after bias correction, respectively. The range of the standard deviations of the efficiency coefficients among the 8 GCMs rainfall data were significantly reduced from 0.05–0.14 (before bias correction) to 0.01–0.03 (after bias correction). Increasing annual rainfall, temperature, PET and river discharge were projected for most of the GCMs used in this study under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. These results will help improving projections and contribute to the development of sustainable climate change adaptation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)
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Open AccessArticle Daytime Variation of Urban Heat Islands: The Case Study of Doha, Qatar
Climate 2016, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/cli4020032
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that urban forms and materials can help to mediate temporal variation of microclimates and that landscape modifications can potentially reduce temperatures and increase accessibility to outdoor environments. To understand the relationship between urban form and temperature moderation, we examined the
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Recent evidence suggests that urban forms and materials can help to mediate temporal variation of microclimates and that landscape modifications can potentially reduce temperatures and increase accessibility to outdoor environments. To understand the relationship between urban form and temperature moderation, we examined the spatial and temporal variation of air temperature throughout one desert city—Doha, Qatar—by conducting vehicle traverses using highly resolved temperature and GPS data logs to determine spatial differences in summertime air temperatures. To help explain near-surface air temperatures using land cover variables, we employed three statistical approaches: Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Regression Tree Analysis (RTA), and Random Forest (RF). We validated the predictions of the statistical models by computing the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and discovered that temporal variations in urban heat are mediated by different factors throughout the day. The average RMSE for OLS, RTA and RF is 1.25, 0.96, and 0.65 (in Celsius), respectively, suggesting that the RF is the best model for predicting near-surface air temperatures at this study site. We conclude by recommending the features of the landscape that have the greatest potential for reducing extreme heat in arid climates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Vulnerability of Rice Value Chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review
Climate 2016, 4(3), 47; doi:10.3390/cli4030047
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threatens to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing
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Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threatens to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)

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