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Climate 2017, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/cli5030058

Predicting Impact of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Tropical Rivers

1
Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2
Centre for Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment (RISE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts and Resilience in the Developing World)
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Abstract

Predicting the impact of climate change and human activities on river systems is imperative for effective management of aquatic ecosystems. Unique information can be derived that is critical to the survival of aquatic species under dynamic environmental conditions. Therefore, the response of a tropical river system under climate and land-use changes from the aspects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were evaluated. Nine designed projected climate change scenarios and three future land-use scenarios were integrated into the Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model to determine the impact of climate change and land-use on water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration using basin-wide simulation of river system in Malaysia. The model performance coefficients showed a good correlation between simulated and observed streamflow, water temperature, and DO concentration in a monthly time step simulation. The Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for streamflow was 0.88 for the calibration period and 0.82 for validation period. For water temperature and DO concentration, data from three stations were calibrated and the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for both water temperature and DO ranged from 0.53 to 0.70. The output of the calibrated model under climate change scenarios show that increased rainfall and air temperature do not affects DO concentration and water temperature as much as the condition of a decrease in rainfall and increase in air temperature. The regression model on changes in streamflow, DO concentration, and water temperature under the climate change scenarios illustrates that scenarios that produce high to moderate streamflow, produce small predicted change in water temperatures and DO concentrations compared with the scenarios that produced a low streamflow. It was observed that climate change slightly affects the relationship between water temperatures and DO concentrations in the tropical rivers that we include in this study. This study demonstrates the potential impact of climate and future land-use changes on tropical rivers and how they might affect the future ecological systems. Most rivers in suburban areas will be ecologically unsuitable to some aquatic species. In comparison, rivers surrounded by agricultural and forestlands are less affected by the projected climate and land-uses changes. The results from this study provide a basis in which resource management and mitigation actions can be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: water temperature; dissolved oxygen; climate change; tropical rivers; land-use water temperature; dissolved oxygen; climate change; tropical rivers; land-use
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MDPI and ACS Style

Danladi Bello, A.-A.; Hashim, N.B.; Mohd Haniffah, M.R. Predicting Impact of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Tropical Rivers. Climate 2017, 5, 58.

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