Special Issue "Monsoons"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology and Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kyung-Ja Ha

Department of Atmospheric Sciences , Research Center for Climate Sciences and IBS Center for Climate Physics, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: boundary layer meteorology; monsoon dynamics; climate variability; hydroclimate; tropical cyclone; ENSO and monsoon

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monsoon climates affects 2/3 of world population’s daily lives. Monsoon precipitation is a key element in global water and energy cycles and a major driver for atmospheric general circulation. Monsoon prediction is the most challenging problem in climate science. Moreover, a number of studies in recent years have drawn attention to the increasing intensity of heavy rainfall events, heat waves and severe droughts over monsoon regions. It has been required that the monsoon scientists should sharpen predictions of start date and intensity of monsoons and how monsoon will respond to climate change. However, changes in the regional monsoons cannot be fully understood unless we get them together into a climate system perspective. Therefore, more detailed studies will be needed to establish that how the regional monsoons are linked, and how their variabilities are demonstrated, and the observed increases in extreme events are indeed due to climate change by human action and not part of a natural variability.

This Special Issue is expected to advance our understanding and provide reliable analysis and prediction for the regional monsoons and their changes on various time scales rom the past to future. Therefore, we invite authors to submit original and review articles that aim to study the monsoons and their variability including extremes, such as drought, dry spell, flooding, heat waves, and so on, over monsoon areas.

Prof. Dr. Kyung-Ja Ha
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • monsoons and their variabilities
  • changes in monsoons
  • physical processes for monsoon extremes and changes
  • prediction of monsoon
  • how monsoon will respond to climate change
  • monsoons in paleo hydroclimate

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of El-Niño, Indian Ocean Dipole, and Madden-Julian Oscillation on Surface Air Temperature and Rainfall Anomalies over Southeast Asia in 2015
Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090352
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The Maritime Continent (MC) is positioned between the Asian and Australian summer monsoons zone. The complex topography and shallow seas around it are major challenges for the climate researchers to model and understand it. It is also the centre of the tropical warm
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The Maritime Continent (MC) is positioned between the Asian and Australian summer monsoons zone. The complex topography and shallow seas around it are major challenges for the climate researchers to model and understand it. It is also the centre of the tropical warm pool of Southeast Asia (SEA) and therefore the MC gets extra attention of the researchers. The monsoon in this area is affected by inter-scale ocean-atmospheric interactions such as the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Monsoon rainfall in the MC (especially in Indonesia and Malaysia) profoundly exhibits its variability dependence on ocean-atmospheric phenomena in this region. This monsoon shift often introduces to dreadful events like biomass burning (BB) in Southeast Asia (SEA) in which some led to severe trans-boundary haze pollution events in the past. In this study, the BB episode of 2015 in the MC is highlighted and discussed. Observational satellite datasets are tested by performing simulations with the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model WRF-ARW (Weather Research and Forecast—Advanced research WRF). Observed and model datasets are compared to study the surface air temperature and precipitation (rainfall) anomalies influenced by ENSO, IOD, and MJO. Links amongst these influences have been recognised and the delayed precipitation of the regular monsoon in the MC due to their influence during the 2015 BB episode is explained and accounted for, which eventually led to the intensification of fire and a severe haze. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Abrupt Climate Shift in the Mature Rainy Season of the Philippines in the Mid-1990s
Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090350
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
A robust climate shift around 1993/1994 from early August to early September, which corresponds to the mature rainy season of the Philippines, was identified in stations located over the western coast of the country. The convection in the mature rainy season during 1994–2008
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A robust climate shift around 1993/1994 from early August to early September, which corresponds to the mature rainy season of the Philippines, was identified in stations located over the western coast of the country. The convection in the mature rainy season during 1994–2008 (E2) was suppressed compared with 1979–1993 (E1). The possible role of the changes in the large-scale conditions and tropical cyclone (TC) activity were analyzed. The results show that the western North Pacific Subtropical High has extended further westward in E2 leading to an enhanced lower-level divergence and less moisture transport over the Philippines. The changes in the large-scale conditions, which featured a mid-tropospheric descent, a decrease in low-level relative humidity, an enhanced vertical zonal wind shear, and a decrease in the perturbation kinetic energy, also inhibited the synoptic-scale disturbances in the vicinity of the Philippines. In particular, fewer TCs developed and made landfall over the Philippines in E2. We also found inconsistent climate shifts in May, June, July, and September between the rainfall data from the stations and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation, which highlights the importance of sub-seasonal analysis in decadal-to-interdecadal climate change studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of NESMv3 and CMIP5 Models’ Performance on Simulation of Asian-Australian Monsoon
Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090327
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The Asian-Australian monsoon (AAM) has far-reaching impacts on global and local climate. Accurate simulations of AAM precipitation and its variabilities are of scientific and social importance, yet remain a great challenge in climate modeling. The present study assesses the performance of the newly
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The Asian-Australian monsoon (AAM) has far-reaching impacts on global and local climate. Accurate simulations of AAM precipitation and its variabilities are of scientific and social importance, yet remain a great challenge in climate modeling. The present study assesses the performance of the newly developed Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology Earth System Model version 3 (NESMv3), together with that of 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, in the simulation of AAM climatology, its major modes of variability, and their relationships with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is concluded that NESMv3 (1) reproduces, well, the observed features of AAM annual mean precipitation; (2) captures the solstice mode (the first annual cycle mode) of AAM realistically, but has difficulty in simulating the equinox mode (the second annual cycle mode) of AAM; (3) underestimates the monsoon precipitation intensity over the East Asian subtropical frontal zone, but overestimates that over the tropical western North Pacific; (4) faithfully reproduces the first season-reliant empirical orthogonal function (SEOF) mode of AAM precipitation and the associated circulation anomalies, as well as its relationship with ENSO turnabout, although the correlation is underestimated. Precipitation anomaly patterns of the second SEOF mode and its relationship with El Nino are poorly simulated by NESMv3 and most of the CMIP5 models as well, indicating that the monsoon variability prior to the ENSO onset is difficult to reproduce. In general, NESMv3’s performance in simulating AAM precipitation ranks among the top or above-average compared with the 20 CMIP5 models. Better simulation of East Asian summer monsoon and western Pacific subtropical high remains a major target for future improvement, in order to provide a reliable tool to understand and predict AAM precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Post-Monsoon Season Precipitation Reduction over South Asia: Impacts of Anthropogenic Aerosols and Irrigation
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080311
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
A significant declining trend of post-monsoon season precipitation in South Asia is observed between 2000–2014. Two major anthropogenic climate change drivers, aerosols and irrigation, have been steadily increasing during this period. The impacts of their regional and seasonal forcings on the post-monsoon precipitation
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A significant declining trend of post-monsoon season precipitation in South Asia is observed between 2000–2014. Two major anthropogenic climate change drivers, aerosols and irrigation, have been steadily increasing during this period. The impacts of their regional and seasonal forcings on the post-monsoon precipitation reduction is investigated in this study through using idealized global climate simulations. The increased post-monsoon aerosol loadings lead to surface cooling downwind of the source areas by reduced surface shortwave flux. The addition of post-monsoon irrigation induces a stronger temperature decrease mainly around the irrigation hotspots by enhanced evaporation. Precipitation over West and North India is reduced post-monsoon by either aerosol or irrigation, which is mainly contributed by the anomalous subsidence. With concurrent forcings, the surface cooling and precipitation decrease are stronger and more extended spatially than the response to the separate forcing, with nonlinear amplification in surface cooling, but nonlinear damping in precipitation reduction. The anomalous vertical motion accelerates the transition of the regional meridional circulation, and hence the earlier withdrawal of the summer monsoon, which is consistent with the observed signals. The current results highlight the importance of including anthropogenic aerosol and irrigation effects in present and future climate simulations over South Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction Skill for the East Asian Winter Monsoon Based on APCC Multi-Models
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080300
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
The prediction skill for the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) has been analyzed, using the observations and different climate models that participate in the APEC Climate Center (APCC) multi-model ensemble (MME) seasonal forecast. The authors first examined the characteristics of the existing EAWM
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The prediction skill for the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) has been analyzed, using the observations and different climate models that participate in the APEC Climate Center (APCC) multi-model ensemble (MME) seasonal forecast. The authors first examined the characteristics of the existing EAWM indices to find a suitable index for the APCC seasonal forecast system. This examination revealed that the selected index shows reasonable prediction skill of EAWM intensity and well-represents the characteristics of wintertime temperature anomalies associated with the EAWM, especially for the extreme cold winters. Although most models capture the main characteristics of the seasonal mean circulation over East Asia reasonably well, they still suffer from difficulty in predicting the interannual variability (IAV) of the EAWM. Fortunately, the POAMA has reasonable skill in capturing the timing and strength of the EAWM IAV and reproduces the EAWM-related circulation anomalies well. The better performance of the POAMA may be attributed to the better skill in simulating the high-latitude forcing including the Siberian High (SH) and Artic Oscillation (AO) and the strong links of the ENSO to the EAWM, compared to other models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Role of Indochina Peninsula Topography in Precipitation Seasonality over East Asia
Atmosphere 2018, 9(7), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9070255
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Stage-wise precipitation evolution over East Asia, primarily from spring to summer, is influenced by nearby monsoons and can be topographically driven. Corresponding to the onset of the Asian summer monsoon circulation, the Meiyu-Baiu occurs rapidly in May, replacing the East Asian spring rains.
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Stage-wise precipitation evolution over East Asia, primarily from spring to summer, is influenced by nearby monsoons and can be topographically driven. Corresponding to the onset of the Asian summer monsoon circulation, the Meiyu-Baiu occurs rapidly in May, replacing the East Asian spring rains. The Meiyu-Baiu rapidly terminates in late July due to the synchronous development of the subtropical monsoons extending from Africa to the East Asia–Western North Pacific (WNP). In late summer–autumn, the monsoonal circulation gradually retreats, in contrast to the rapid and stepwise transitions of the monsoon. This study reviews the role of the Indochina Peninsula in modulating the seasonality of nearby monsoons, primarily based on previous modeling works, and expands the analysis for a full view of the annual monsoon cycle. The review and additional results highlight the role of the topographical processes of the Indochina Peninsula in driving the rapid monsoonal transitions, which correspond to the early summer vertical circulation coupling over the Bay of Bengal-Indochina Peninsula and the late-July WNP monsoon onset. In the simulation with a flattened topography, the southerly winds disappear over the Indochina Peninsula and the westerly winds gradually expand eastward across the Indochina Peninsula in the lower troposphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Influences of the North Pacific Victoria Mode on the South China Sea Summer Monsoon
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060229
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Using the reanalysis data and the numerical experiments of a coupled general circulation model (CGCM), we illustrated that perturbations in the second dominant mode (EOF2) of springtime North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referred to as the Victoria mode (VM), are closely
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Using the reanalysis data and the numerical experiments of a coupled general circulation model (CGCM), we illustrated that perturbations in the second dominant mode (EOF2) of springtime North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referred to as the Victoria mode (VM), are closely linked to variations in the intensity of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM). The underlying physical mechanism through which the VM affects the SCSSM is similar to the seasonal footprinting mechanism (SFM). Thermodynamic ocean–atmosphere coupling helps the springtime SST anomalies in the subtropics associated with the VM to persist into summer and to develop gradually toward the equator, leading to a weakened zonal SST gradient across the western North Pacific (WNP) to central equatorial Pacific, which in turn induces an anomalous cyclonic flow over the WNP and westerly anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific that tend to strengthen the WNP summer monsoon (WNPSM) as well as the SCSSM. The VM influence on both the WNPSM and SCSSM is intimately tied to its influence on ENSO through westerly anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Cold Surge Occurrence over East Asia in the Future: Role of Thermal Structure
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060222
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
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Abstract
The occurrence of wintertime cold surges (CSs) over East Asia is largely controlled by the surface air temperature (SAT) distribution at high latitudes and thermal advection in the lower troposphere. The thermodynamic background state over northeastern Asia is associated with the strength of
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The occurrence of wintertime cold surges (CSs) over East Asia is largely controlled by the surface air temperature (SAT) distribution at high latitudes and thermal advection in the lower troposphere. The thermodynamic background state over northeastern Asia is associated with the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon and the variation of Arctic Oscillation. This study assesses the importance of the SAT structure with thermal advection in determining the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia through the analysis of nine atmosphere–ocean coupled global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The historical simulations can reproduce the observed typical characteristics of CS development. On the basis of this model performance, ensemble-averaged future simulations under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 project a reduction in CS frequency by 1.1 yr−1 in the late 21st century (2065–2095) compared to the present-day period (1975–2005). The major reason for less frequent CSs in the future is the weakened cold advection, caused by notable SAT warming over the northern part of East Asia. These results suggest that changes in the meridional SAT structure and the associated changes in thermal advection would play a more substantial role than local warming in determining future changes in the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Multidecadal Variability in the Subseasonal Peak of Low-Level Convergence over the Pacific Warm Pool
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050158
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
In the Western North Pacific (WNP), the atmospheric low-level convergence is one of the main factors that influences the genesis of tropical cyclones (TC). It has been observed that the timing of the seasonal maxima in the low-level convergence and TC genesis has
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In the Western North Pacific (WNP), the atmospheric low-level convergence is one of the main factors that influences the genesis of tropical cyclones (TC). It has been observed that the timing of the seasonal maxima in the low-level convergence and TC genesis has shifted since the mid-1990s from mid-August to late-July, with this shift having also affected the number of TC. A multidecadal frequency of 20 years was revealed in the timing variation of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in the Western Pacific, in which a weak WNP low-level convergence in spring may trigger an advanced ISO phase in summer and vice versa. The present diagnostic analysis does not identify any prominent oceanic variations associated with these multidecadal variations in the summer ISO or in the spring setup of the ISO. The atmospheric circulation does show an anomaly, which suggests an intensified extension of the subtropical high. The possible mechanism may be related to stochastic low-frequency variability of the atmosphere, which acts to influence the seasonal evolution of the WNP low-level convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Open AccessArticle Activity Characteristics of the East Asian Trough in CMIP5 Models
Atmosphere 2018, 9(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9020067
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the performances of 12 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) models for simulating the climatology and interannual variability of the East Asian trough (EAT) are assessed using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data and the outputs
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In this paper, the performances of 12 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) models for simulating the climatology and interannual variability of the East Asian trough (EAT) are assessed using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data and the outputs of the CMIP5 models. The multimodel ensemble (MME) successfully reproduces the spatial pattern and spatial variations in the climatology and interannual variability of the EAT but the intensity and interannual variability of EAT are weaker than in the observations. The biases in intensity (interannual variability) are larger over the southern (northern) part of the EAT than over the northern (southern) part. The intermodel spreads are small for the EAT intensity but are large for its location in terms of both latitude and longitude. The simulated EAT in the MME is about 3° E and 1.5° S of that observed. All 12 CMIP5 models reproduce the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of EAT activity; however, its intensity and location are only successfully captured in half of the models and its linear weakening trend is simulated in ten models. The second EOF mode of EAT activity and its linear strengthening trend are successfully reproduced in eight models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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