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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Micromechanical Analysis for Two-Phase Copper-Silver Composites under Large Deformations
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010001
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
This study presents a homogenization based on micromechanics approach for a two-phase copper (Cu)-silver (Ag) composite undergoing finite deformations. In this approach, the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) is implemented for the prediction of the effective behavior of two cold-drawn Cu-Ag composites
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This study presents a homogenization based on micromechanics approach for a two-phase copper (Cu)-silver (Ag) composite undergoing finite deformations. In this approach, the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) is implemented for the prediction of the effective behavior of two cold-drawn Cu-Ag composites with different drawing strains and to obtain the field (deformation gradient and stress) distributions in the composite. Both metals (Cu or Ag) are rate-dependent crystal plasticity material constituents. HFGMC is applied for studying the deformation behavior of two-phase Cu-Ag composites under uniaxial compression. The micromechanical approach has been verified by comparison with experimental and finite element simulation results. Results in terms of deformation behavior and field distributions are given for two different cold-drawn composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulative Prediction of Fiber-Matrix Separation in Rib Filling During Compression Molding Using a Direct Fiber Simulation
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010002
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Compression molding of long fiber reinforced composites offers specific advantages in automotive applications due to the high strength to weight ratio, the comparably low tooling costs and short cycle times. However, the manufacturing process of long fiber composite parts presents a range of
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Compression molding of long fiber reinforced composites offers specific advantages in automotive applications due to the high strength to weight ratio, the comparably low tooling costs and short cycle times. However, the manufacturing process of long fiber composite parts presents a range of challenges. The phenomenon of fiber matrix separation (FMS) is causing severe deviations in fiber content, especially in complex ribbed structures. Currently, there is no commercial software that is capable to accurately predict FMS. This work uses a particle level mechanistic model to study FMS in a rib filling application. The direct fiber simulation (DFS) is uniquely suited to this application due to its ability to model individual fibers and their bending, as well as the interaction amongst fibers that leads to agglomeration. The effects of mold geometry, fiber length, viscosity, and initial fiber orientation are studied. It is shown that fiber length and initial fiber orientation have the most pronounced effects on fiber volume percentage in the ribs, with viscosity and part geometry playing a smaller role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle A Rupture Limit Equation for Pre-Loaded Laminated Composite Plates
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010003
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer composites offer inherent advantages over traditional metallic materials in a number of different ways; however, these materials are also highly susceptible to impact damage. In this paper, we explore the response of FRP (fiber reinforced polymer) composites under impact conditions that
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Fiber-reinforced polymer composites offer inherent advantages over traditional metallic materials in a number of different ways; however, these materials are also highly susceptible to impact damage. In this paper, we explore the response of FRP (fiber reinforced polymer) composites under impact conditions that could result in their rupture or catastrophic failure. The work performed was aimed at developing a general, data-driven equation for initially-stressed, flat, composite plates that would differentiate between impact conditions that would result in only a hole or crack and those which would cause catastrophic plate failure or rupture. If this equation were to be subsequently shown to also model the rupture/non-rupture behavior of, for example, composite overwrapped pressure vessels, then it could also be used to appropriately tailor the design parameters and/or operating conditions of such pressurized tanks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polylactic Acid (PLA)/Cellulose Nanowhiskers (CNWs) Composite Nanofibers: Microstructural and Properties Analysis
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010004
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA)/cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) composite nanofibers were successfully produced by electrospinning mixed PLA solutions with CNWs. Observation by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms the uniform distribution of CNWs within the PLA nanofibers along the direction of the fiber axis. The
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Polylactic acid (PLA)/cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) composite nanofibers were successfully produced by electrospinning mixed PLA solutions with CNWs. Observation by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms the uniform distribution of CNWs within the PLA nanofibers along the direction of the fiber axis. The spectra of composite nanofibers based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal characteristic hydroxyl groups as evidenced by absorption peaks of CNWs. The addition of hydrophilic CNWs is proven to improve the water absorption ability of PLA nanofibers. The initial cold crystallization temperature decreases with the increasing CNW content, implying the nucleating agent role of CNWs as effective nanofillers. The degree of crystallinity increases from 6.0% for as-electrospun pure PLA nanofibers to 14.1% and 21.6% for PLA/5CNWs and PLA/10CNWs composite nanofibers, respectively. The incorporation of CNWs into PLA is expected to offer novel functionalities to electrospun composite nanofibers in the fields of tissue engineering and membranes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Reinforced Reactive Injection Molding with the Finite Volume Method
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010005
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
The reactive process of reinforced thermoset injection molding significantly influences the mechanical properties of the final composite structure. Therefore, reliable process simulation is crucial to predict the process behavior and relevant process effects. Virtual process design is thus highly important for the composite
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The reactive process of reinforced thermoset injection molding significantly influences the mechanical properties of the final composite structure. Therefore, reliable process simulation is crucial to predict the process behavior and relevant process effects. Virtual process design is thus highly important for the composite manufacturing industry for creating high quality parts. Although thermoset injection molding shows a more complex flow behavior, state of the art molding simulation software typically focusses on thermoplastic injection molding. To overcome this gap in virtual process prediction, the present work proposes a finite volume (FV) based simulation method, which models the multiphase flow with phase-dependent boundary conditions. Compared to state-of-the-art Finite-Element-based approaches, Finite-Volume-Method (FVM) provides more adequate multiphase flow modeling by calculating the flow at the cell surfaces with an Eulerian approach. The new method also enables the description of a flow region with partial wall contact. Furthermore, fiber orientation, curing and viscosity models are used to simulate the reinforced reactive injection molding process. The open source Computational-Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM is used for implementation. The solver is validated with experimental pressure data recorded during mold filling. Additionally, the simulation results are compared to commercial Finite-Element-Method software. The simulation results of the new FV-based CFD method fit well with the experimental data, showing that FVM has a high potential for modeling reinforced reactive injection molding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Static and Dynamic Response Variability due to Parametric Uncertainty on Fibre-Reinforced Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010006
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Composite structures are known for their ability to be tailored according to specific operating requisites. Therefore, when modelling these types of structures or components, it is important to account for their response variability, which is mainly due to significant parametric uncertainty compared to
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Composite structures are known for their ability to be tailored according to specific operating requisites. Therefore, when modelling these types of structures or components, it is important to account for their response variability, which is mainly due to significant parametric uncertainty compared to traditional materials. The possibility of manufacturing a material according to certain needs provides greater flexibility in design but it also introduces additional sources of uncertainty. Regardless of the origin of the material and/or geometrical variabilities, they will influence the structural responses. Therefore, it is important to anticipate and quantify these uncertainties as much as possible. With the present work, we intend to assess the influence of uncertain material and geometrical parameters on the responses of composite structures. Behind this characterization, linear static and free vibration analyses are performed considering that several material properties, the thickness of each layer and the fibre orientation angles are deemed to be uncertain. In this study, multivariable linear regression models are used to model the maximum transverse deflection and fundamental frequency for a given set of plates, aiming at characterizing the contribution of each modelling parameter to the explanation of the response variability. A set of simulations and numerical results are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Materials Applied to Structural Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites for Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing: Nonisothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Thermal Expansion
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010007
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is a versatile polymer. It accounts for the second-largest polymer consumption worldwide. However, iPP is difficult to 3D print via extrusion-based processing. This is attributable to its rapid crystallization rate. In this study, spray-dried cellulose nanofibrils (SDCNF) and maleic anhydride
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Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is a versatile polymer. It accounts for the second-largest polymer consumption worldwide. However, iPP is difficult to 3D print via extrusion-based processing. This is attributable to its rapid crystallization rate. In this study, spray-dried cellulose nanofibrils (SDCNF) and maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) were investigated to reveal their effects on the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics and thermal expansion of iPP. SDCNF at 3 wt % and 30 wt % accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP, while SDCNF at 10 wt % retarded the crystallization rate by restricting crystal growth and moderately increasing the nucleation density of iPP. Additionally, adding MAPP into iPP/SDCNF composites accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP. The effective activation energy of iPP increased when more than 10 wt % SDCNF was added. Scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy results indicated that high SDCNF content led to a reduced gap size among SDCNF, which hindered the iPP crystal growth. The coefficient of thermal expansion of iPP/SDCNF10% was 11.7% lower than the neat iPP. In summary, SDCNF, at 10 wt %, can be used to reduce the warping of iPP during extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Composites Reinforced with Plant-Based Fabrics: Cost and Eco-Impact Assessment
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010008
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
This study considers a green composite under a twofold assessment; evaluating its process-based cost and environmental footprint profile. The initial objective was to project the manufacturing cost and allow for an additional material comparison of alternative scenarios in the resin transfer molding processes.
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This study considers a green composite under a twofold assessment; evaluating its process-based cost and environmental footprint profile. The initial objective was to project the manufacturing cost and allow for an additional material comparison of alternative scenarios in the resin transfer molding processes. The additional aim is to have an intermediate environmental assessment to assist in selecting materials and adjust manufacturing parameters which would minimize the energy spent and the CO2 emissions. As it has been noted in numerous applications, the incorporation of natural fiber fabrics, as opposed to glass fabrics, bring together weight savings and consequently cost savings. However, the economic analysis suggests that a glass reinforced composite is marginally cheaper at the production volume of 300 parts (1.9% lower cost) in contrast to a possible green solution (ramie). Considering jute instead of ramie as a reinforcement, the cost gets immediately lower, and further decreases with proposed improvements to the manufacturing process. Additional reduction of up to 10% in the production cost can be achieved by process upgrade. As indicated by the Eco-Audit analysis, 36% less energy and 44% CO2 per kilo will be generated, respectively when swapping from glass to ramie fabrics in the production of the automotive hood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Composites for Industrial Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Fatigue Damage of Composites Using Strength Degradation and Cumulative Damage Model
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010009
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses the prediction of fatigue response of composites using an empirical strength and stiffness degradation scheme coupled to a cumulative damage accumulation approach. The cumulative damage accumulation approach is needed to account for the non-constant stress levels that arise due to
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This paper discusses the prediction of fatigue response of composites using an empirical strength and stiffness degradation scheme coupled to a cumulative damage accumulation approach. The cumulative damage accumulation approach is needed to account for the non-constant stress levels that arise due to stress distributions from stiffness degradation during the fatigue loading. Degradation of strength and stiffness during fatigue loading of the composite was implemented by following the empirical model presented by Shokrieh and Lessard with some modification and correction to the non-dimensional load parameter definition. The fatigue analysis was performed using ABAQUS™ finite element software using a user-defined material subroutine UMAT developed for the material response. Implementation results were first verified for unidirectional laminate test cases and validated by predicting stress versus life (S-N) curves for several laminate coupons test simulations and residual strengths of Open Hole Tension (OHT) specimens subjected to constant amplitude fatigue loading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rheology Effects on Predicted Fiber Orientation and Elastic Properties in Large Scale Polymer Composite Additive Manufacturing
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010010
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Short fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced to large-scale additive manufacturing to improve the mechanical performances of printed-parts. As the short fiber polymer composite is extruded and deposited on a moving platform, velocity gradients within the melt orientate the suspended fibers, and the
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Short fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced to large-scale additive manufacturing to improve the mechanical performances of printed-parts. As the short fiber polymer composite is extruded and deposited on a moving platform, velocity gradients within the melt orientate the suspended fibers, and the final orientation directly affects material properties in the solidified extrudate. This paper numerically evaluates melt rheology effects on predicted fiber orientation and elastic properties of printed-composites in three steps. First, the steady-state isothermal axisymmetric nozzle melt flow is computed, which includes the prediction of die swell just outside the nozzle exit. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-Polyflow, where we consider the effect of various rheology models on the computed outcomes. Here, we include Newtonian, generalized Newtonian, and viscoelastic rheology models to represent the melt flow. Fiber orientation is computed using Advani–Tucker fiber orientation tensors. Finally, elastic properties in the extrudate are evaluated based from predicted fiber orientation distributions. Calculations show that the Phan–Thien–Tanner (PTT) model yields the lowest fiber principal alignment among considered rheology models. Furthermore, the cross section averaged elastic properties indicate a strong transversely isotropic behavior in these composites, where generalized Newtonian models yield higher principal Young’s modulus, while the viscoelastic fluid models result in higher shear moduli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Processing Parameters for Thermoplastic Biocomposites Based on Hybrid Yarns Using Finite Elements Simulation
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010011
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the processing parameters for the compression molding of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn biocomposites and their effect on the final mechanical properties. Finite element simulations are used to develop and assess the processing parameters, pressure, temperature, and time. These parameters are then
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This paper investigates the processing parameters for the compression molding of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn biocomposites and their effect on the final mechanical properties. Finite element simulations are used to develop and assess the processing parameters, pressure, temperature, and time. These parameters are then evaluated experimentally by producing the composites by two different methods, to compare the results of experimentally determined processing conditions to parameters determined by the simulation analysis. The assessment of mechanical properties is done with several experimental tests, showing small improvements for the composites produced with the simulation method. The application of the simulation analysis results in considerably reduced processing times, from the initial 10 min to only three minutes, thereby vastly improving the processing method. While the employed methods are not yet able to produce composites with greatly improved mechanical properties, this study can be seen as a constructive approach, which has the ability to lead to further improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cruciform Specimen Design for Biaxial Tensile Testing of SMC
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010012
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of different cruciform specimen designs for the characterization of sheet molding compound (SMC) under biaxial loading. The considered material is a discontinuous glass fiber reinforced thermoset. We define various (material-specific) requirements for an optimal specimen design. One key
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This paper presents an investigation of different cruciform specimen designs for the characterization of sheet molding compound (SMC) under biaxial loading. The considered material is a discontinuous glass fiber reinforced thermoset. We define various (material-specific) requirements for an optimal specimen design. One key challenge represents the achievement of a high strain level in the center region of the cruciform specimen in order to observe damage, at the same time prevention of premature failure in the clamped specimen arms. Starting from the ISO norm for sheet metals, we introduce design variations, including two concepts to reinforce the specimens’ arms. An experimental evaluation includes two different loading scenarios, uniaxial tension and equi-biaxial tension. The best fit in terms of the defined optimality criteria, is a specimen manufactured in a layup with unidirectional reinforcing outer layers where a gentle milling process exposed the pure SMC in the center region of the specimen. This specimen performed superior for all considered loading conditions, for instance, in the uniaxial loading scenario, the average strain in the center region reached 87 % of the failure strain in a uniaxial tensile bone specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010013
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs) using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining
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This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs) using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min), the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Curvilinear Reinforcing Fibers on the Linear Static Behavior of Soft-Core Sandwich Structures
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010014
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
The present research deals with the linear static behavior of soft-core sandwich plates and shells. The external skins are reinforced by curvilinear fibers. Their curved paths are described by a general mathematical law that allows the definition of arbitrary placements. The mechanical behavior
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The present research deals with the linear static behavior of soft-core sandwich plates and shells. The external skins are reinforced by curvilinear fibers. Their curved paths are described by a general mathematical law that allows the definition of arbitrary placements. The mechanical behavior of these structures is modeled through several Higher-order Shear Deformation Theories (HSDTs) including the zig-zag effect, based on an Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) approach. The solution of the governing equations is achieved numerically by means of the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method. A huge number of parametric investigations is proposed in graphical and tabular forms to highlight the influence of the fiber orientation on the static response. The results prove that the structural behavior is affected by such parameters. Thus, the desired structural behavior can be modified by means of a proper choice of the fiber orientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Innovative Materials in Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Surface Observation of Montmorillonite/Polyaniline Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010015
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
Polyaniline (PANI) is synthesized in the presence of montmorillonite (Mt). Mt has small spaces between its layers. This interlayer spacing functions as a reaction field for the production of PANI with an organized structure. Mt/PANI composites thus synthesized were characterized by the IR
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Polyaniline (PANI) is synthesized in the presence of montmorillonite (Mt). Mt has small spaces between its layers. This interlayer spacing functions as a reaction field for the production of PANI with an organized structure. Mt/PANI composites thus synthesized were characterized by the IR and the UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the PANI is covered by the flake structure of the Mt. A cylindrical structure was also observed in the sample. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the composite of the PANI and the Mt had an ordered structure, suggesting that the macroscopic structure of the natural clays can provide a unique reaction field for polymerization reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Convergence of Laminated Composite Plates of Arbitrary Shape through Finite Element Models
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010016
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
The present work considers a computational study on laminated composite plates by using a linear theory for moderately thick structures. The present problem is solved numerically because analytical solutions cannot be found for such plates when lamination schemes are general and when all
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The present work considers a computational study on laminated composite plates by using a linear theory for moderately thick structures. The present problem is solved numerically because analytical solutions cannot be found for such plates when lamination schemes are general and when all the stiffness constants are activated at the constitutive level. Strong and weak formulations are used to solve the present problem and several comparisons are given. The strong form is dealt with using the so-called Strong Formulation Finite Element Method (SFEM) and the weak form is solved using commercial Finite Element (FE) packages. Both techniques are based on the domain decomposition technique according to geometric discontinuities. The SFEM solves the strong form inside each element and needs the implementation of kinematic and static inter-element conditions, whereas the FE solves the weak form and the continuity conditions among the elements are given in terms of displacements only. The results are reported in graphical form in terms of the first three natural frequencies. The accuracy and stability of SFEM and FE are thoroughly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Materials Applied to Structural Mechanics)
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