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J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2010010

Rheology Effects on Predicted Fiber Orientation and Elastic Properties in Large Scale Polymer Composite Additive Manufacturing

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
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Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Abstract

Short fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced to large-scale additive manufacturing to improve the mechanical performances of printed-parts. As the short fiber polymer composite is extruded and deposited on a moving platform, velocity gradients within the melt orientate the suspended fibers, and the final orientation directly affects material properties in the solidified extrudate. This paper numerically evaluates melt rheology effects on predicted fiber orientation and elastic properties of printed-composites in three steps. First, the steady-state isothermal axisymmetric nozzle melt flow is computed, which includes the prediction of die swell just outside the nozzle exit. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-Polyflow, where we consider the effect of various rheology models on the computed outcomes. Here, we include Newtonian, generalized Newtonian, and viscoelastic rheology models to represent the melt flow. Fiber orientation is computed using Advani–Tucker fiber orientation tensors. Finally, elastic properties in the extrudate are evaluated based from predicted fiber orientation distributions. Calculations show that the Phan–Thien–Tanner (PTT) model yields the lowest fiber principal alignment among considered rheology models. Furthermore, the cross section averaged elastic properties indicate a strong transversely isotropic behavior in these composites, where generalized Newtonian models yield higher principal Young’s modulus, while the viscoelastic fluid models result in higher shear moduli. View Full-Text
Keywords: short fiber-reinforced polymer; large-scale additive manufacturing; rheology effect; die swell; fiber orientation; elastic properties short fiber-reinforced polymer; large-scale additive manufacturing; rheology effect; die swell; fiber orientation; elastic properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Z.; Smith, D.E. Rheology Effects on Predicted Fiber Orientation and Elastic Properties in Large Scale Polymer Composite Additive Manufacturing. J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2, 10.

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