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J. Compos. Sci., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Polylactic Acid Reinforced with Mixed Cellulose and Chitin Nanofibers—Effect of Mixture Ratio on the Mechanical Properties of Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020036
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The development of all-bio-based composites is one of the relevant aspects of pursuing a carbon-neutral economy. This study aims to explore the possibility to reinforce polylactic acid by the combination of cellulose and chitin nanofibers instead of a single reinforcement phase. Polylactic acid
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The development of all-bio-based composites is one of the relevant aspects of pursuing a carbon-neutral economy. This study aims to explore the possibility to reinforce polylactic acid by the combination of cellulose and chitin nanofibers instead of a single reinforcement phase. Polylactic acid colloidal suspension, cellulose and chitin nanofiber suspensions were mixed using only water as mixing medium and subsequently dewatered to form paper-like sheets. Sheets were hot pressed to melt the polylactic acid and form nanocomposites. The combination of cellulose and chitin nanofiber composites delivered higher tensile properties than its counterparts reinforced with cellulose or chitin nanofibers alone. Cellulose and chitin appear to complement each other from the aspect of the formation of a rigid cellulose nanofiber percolated network, and chitin acting as a compatibilizer between hydrophobic polylactic acid and hydrophilic cellulose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of Recycled Pulped Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood Fibre in Polymer Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020035
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate if it is possible to recycle chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for use in wood polymer composites. This was done by soda pulping wood chips of CCA-treated lumber in a laboratory-scale digester. Composites of 10–30
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The goal of this study was to investigate if it is possible to recycle chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for use in wood polymer composites. This was done by soda pulping wood chips of CCA-treated lumber in a laboratory-scale digester. Composites of 10–30 weight percentage of filler in polypropylene were produced with and without the addition of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) as a coupling agent. These composites were produced using extrusion compounding and injection moulding. The mechanical properties were determined using tensile testing; the properties examined in this study are the ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus and strain at break. The effect of the CCA-treated filler on the dimensional stability was investigated by comparing the moisture absorption with virgin wood-filled composites. It was found that ultimate tensile strength improves with increasing filler percentage for the compositions with MAPP. The Young’s modulus increases with increasing filler percentage for all compositions, and failure strain decreases with increasing filler percentage for all compositions. Moisture absorption studies show that the moisture absorption decreases when MAPP is added to the composite, and a slight decrease in moisture uptake is observed for the CCA-treated wood composites with respect to the virgin wood composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of a Novel Composite of Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Strengthened by Short Basalt Fiber
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020034
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Polymer matrix composites (PMC) have a competitive and dominant role in a lot of industries, like aerospace and automobiles. Short basalt fiber (SBF) is used to strengthen acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) polymers as a composite. The composite material is fabricated using injection molding with a
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Polymer matrix composites (PMC) have a competitive and dominant role in a lot of industries, like aerospace and automobiles. Short basalt fiber (SBF) is used to strengthen acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) polymers as a composite. The composite material is fabricated using injection molding with a new technique to obtain a uniform distribution for the ABS matrix at an elevated temperature range from 140 °C to 240 °C. Four types of specimen were produced according to the mechanically mixed amounts of SBF, which were (5, 10, 15, 20) wt %. The produced material was tested for tension, hardness and impact to measure the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the ABS only and the ABS reinforced by SBF composite. Wear tests were carried out using a pin on disc at a velocity of 57.5 m/s at three normal loads of 5, 10 and 15 kN. Tensile strength increased with up to 5 wt % of SBF, then decreased with an increasing amount of SBF reinforcement, while surface hardness increased with increasing SBF. The impact strength was found to degrade with the whole increment of SBF. Wear resistance increased with the increasing SBF reinforcement amount at all applied normal loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel CAE Method for Compression Molding Simulation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Sheet Materials
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020033
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Its high-specific strength and stiffness with lower cost make discontinuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (FRT) materials an ideal choice for lightweight applications in the automotive industry. Compression molding is one of the preferred manufacturing processes for such materials as it offers the opportunity to maintain
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Its high-specific strength and stiffness with lower cost make discontinuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (FRT) materials an ideal choice for lightweight applications in the automotive industry. Compression molding is one of the preferred manufacturing processes for such materials as it offers the opportunity to maintain a longer fiber length and higher volume production. In the past, we have demonstrated that compression molding of FRT in bulk form can be simulated by treating melt flow as a continuum using the conservation of mass and momentum equations. However, the compression molding of such materials in sheet form using a similar approach does not work well. The assumption of melt flow as a continuum does not hold for such deformation processes. To address this challenge, we have developed a novel simulation approach. First, the draping of the sheet was simulated as a structural deformation using the explicit finite element approach. Next, the draped shape was compressed using fluid mechanics equations. The proposed method was verified by building a physical part and comparing the predicted fiber orientation and warpage measurements performed on the physical parts. The developed method and tools are expected to help in expediting the development of FRT parts, which will help achieve lightweight targets in the automotive industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Nano-Mechanical, Electrochemical and Raman Spectroscopic Behavior of Al6061-SiC-Graphite Hybrid Surface Composite Fabricated through Friction Stir Processing
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020032
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
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Abstract
Aluminium-based hybrid metal grid composites (MMC) are extensively utilized in automobile applications (engine cylinders, pistons, etc.) as they exhibit a fantastic blend of properties. Here, a detailed study of nano-mechanical, electrochemical and Raman spectroscopic behavior of friction stir processed Al6061-SiC-graphite hybrid surface composite
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Aluminium-based hybrid metal grid composites (MMC) are extensively utilized in automobile applications (engine cylinders, pistons, etc.) as they exhibit a fantastic blend of properties. Here, a detailed study of nano-mechanical, electrochemical and Raman spectroscopic behavior of friction stir processed Al6061-SiC-graphite hybrid surface composite is presented. The effect of various tool rotational speeds was evaluated along with the monitoring of variation in axial force. Microstructural changes with various tool rotational speeds are studied by using a scanning electron microscope. Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction studies are used for the spectroscopic characterization of the fabricated hybrid and mono surface composites. Residual stresses and various crystal structure disorders of reinforcement result in the significant change in intensity and a considerable shift in Raman peak positions. The nano-mechanical behavior of the fabricated composite with various reinforcements and tool rotational speeds are analyzed by using nano-indentation. The nano-mechanical behavior of hybrid composite fabricated with an optimum set of processing parameters is superior to mono composites fabricated with the same processing parameters. Also, the electrochemical behavior of the fabricated composites is studied by linear potentiodynamic polarization test. The Al6061-SiC-graphite hybrid surface composite reveals excellent nano-mechanical and electrochemical behavior when fabricated with an optimum set of processing parameters. The tool rotational speed has a pronounced effect on the dispersion of agglomerates and grain refinement of the matrix material. The processing parameters extensively affect the Raman spectroscopic behavior of the hybrid composite. The hybrid surface composite shows better corrosion resistance than the mono composites when fabricated with an optimum set of processing parameters. Reduced intergranular as well as interfacial corrosion pits in hybrid composites increased its resistance to corrosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Composites Based on Organic Modified Zirconium Phosphate and PEOT/PBT Copolymer
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020031
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Polymers are key building blocks in the development of smart materials for biomedical applications, and many polymers offer unique properties for specific applications. A wide range of materials is available through the use of polymer compounds. These compounds can incorporate performance-enhancing fillers, which
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Polymers are key building blocks in the development of smart materials for biomedical applications, and many polymers offer unique properties for specific applications. A wide range of materials is available through the use of polymer compounds. These compounds can incorporate performance-enhancing fillers, which provide properties not reachable with ordinary neat polymers (e.g., bending stiffness, tensile strength, elongation, torque, biological activity such as antimicrobial properties, cell differentiation). In this work, the preparation of functional biocomposites containing organic modified zirconium phosphate (ZrP) as drug carrier is presented. The composites were prepared by melt compounding, which offers significant promise since it allows an easy customization of the plastic compounds that well suit biomedical applications (devices, long-term implantable polymers, bioresorbable polymers). The obtained polymer composites based on ZrP intercalated with gentamicin (GMT) and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) were characterized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of the Mixed-Mode Delamination of Composite Specimens
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020030
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The present research deals with the delamination process in multi-layered composite specimens, with a reduced computational effort. The adhesive interface between sublaminates is represented as a continuous distribution of elastic-brittle springs in the normal and/or tangential direction depending on the interfacial mixed-mode condition.
[...] Read more.
The present research deals with the delamination process in multi-layered composite specimens, with a reduced computational effort. The adhesive interface between sublaminates is represented as a continuous distribution of elastic-brittle springs in the normal and/or tangential direction depending on the interfacial mixed-mode condition. Each composite adherend, instead, is modelled according to the Timoshenko’s beam theory. The proposed formulation is here enhanced through the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method, where the differential equations of the problem are solved directly in a strong form. Thus, the possibility of tracking the delamination response of the specimens is provided locally in a numerical sense, in terms of interface stresses, internal forces and displacements but also in terms of critical fracture energies and mode mixity angles. A further check of the proposed formulation is performed with respect to some standard solutions available in literature. The good agreement between numerical and theoretical predictions verifies the efficiency of the proposed GDQ approach for the study of complex mixed-mode delamination phenomena in composite materials and joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Innovative Materials in Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Optimum Electrode Configurations for Two-Probe, Four-Probe and Multi-Probe Schemes in Electrical Resistance Tomography for Delamination Identification in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020029
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Internal damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites modifies the internal electrical conductivity of the composite material. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that determines the extent of damage based on electrical conductivity changes. Implementation of ERT for
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Internal damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites modifies the internal electrical conductivity of the composite material. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that determines the extent of damage based on electrical conductivity changes. Implementation of ERT for damage identification in CFRP composites requires the optimal selection of the sensing sites for accurate results. This selection depends on the measuring scheme used. The present work uses an effective independence (EI) measure for selecting the minimum set of measurements for ERT damage identification using three measuring schemes: two-probe, four-probe and multi-probe. The electrical potential field in two CFRP laminate layups with 14 electrodes is calculated using finite element analyses (FEA) for a set of specified delamination damage cases. The measuring schemes consider the cases of 14 electrodes distributed on both sides and seven electrodes on only one side of the laminate for each layup. The effectiveness of EI reduction is demonstrated by comparing the inverse identification results of delamination cases for the full and the reduced sets using the measuring schemes and electrode sets. This work shows that the EI measure optimally reduces electrode and electrode combinations in ERT based damage identification for different measuring schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Pb-Free Nanocomposite Solder Alloys
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020028
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
As an alternative to conventional Pb-containing solder material, Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) based alloys are at the forefront despite limitations associated with relatively poor strength and coarsening of grains/intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during aging/reflow. Accordingly, this study examines the improvement of properties of SAC alloys by
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As an alternative to conventional Pb-containing solder material, Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) based alloys are at the forefront despite limitations associated with relatively poor strength and coarsening of grains/intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during aging/reflow. Accordingly, this study examines the improvement of properties of SAC alloys by incorporating nanoparticles in it. Two different types of nanoparticles were added in monolithic SAC alloy: (1) Al2O3 or (2) Fe and their effect on microstructure and thermal properties were investigated. Addition of Fe nanoparticles leads to the formation of FeSn2 IMCs alongside Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 from monolithic SAC alloy. Addition of Al2O3 nano-particles do not contribute to phase formation, however, remains dispersed along primary β-Sn grain boundaries and act as a grain refiner. As the addition of either Fe or Al2O3 nano-particles do not make any significant effect on thermal behavior, these reinforced nanocomposites are foreseen to provide better mechanical characteristics with respect to conventional monolithic SAC solder alloys. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue-Damage Evolution of Notched Composite Multilayered Structures under Tensile Loads
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020027
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The problems discussed in the present paper are well-known both from the theoretical (numerical) and experimental point of view. The novelty of our approach depends on the application of hybrid experimental methods and a comparison of their effectiveness in the description of complicated
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The problems discussed in the present paper are well-known both from the theoretical (numerical) and experimental point of view. The novelty of our approach depends on the application of hybrid experimental methods and a comparison of their effectiveness in the description of complicated fatigue problems arising in the analysis of the behavior of laminated panels with open holes and subjected to tensile loading. Three experimental methods were used: infrared thermography (passive), structural health monitoring (active), and digital image correlation. The experimental investigations were supplemented by the finite element description of the problem dealing mainly with the static behavior, monitoring the development and final fracture of composites. The considerations concern laminated panels oriented at ±45° with different types of holes, i.e., vertical elliptical, horizontal elliptical, and circular. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of the Fiber Orientation State and the Resulting Structural and Thermal Properties of Fiber Reinforced Additive Manufactured Composites Fabricated Using the Big Area Additive Manufacturing Process
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020026
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Recent advances in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) include large material deposition rates and the addition of chopped carbon fibers to the filament feedstock. During processing, the flow field within the polymer melt orients the fiber suspension, which is important to quantify as the
[...] Read more.
Recent advances in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) include large material deposition rates and the addition of chopped carbon fibers to the filament feedstock. During processing, the flow field within the polymer melt orients the fiber suspension, which is important to quantify as the underlying fiber orientation influences the mechanical and thermal properties. This paper investigates the correlation between processing conditions and the resulting locally varying thermal-structural properties that dictate both the final part performance and part dimensionality. The flow domain includes both the confined and unconfined flow indicative of the extruder nozzle within the FFF deposition process. The resulting orientation is obtained through two different isotropic rotary diffusion models, the model by Folgar and Tucker and that of Wang et al., and a comparison is made to demonstrate the sensitivity of the deposited bead’s spatially varying orientation as well as the final processed part’s thermal-structural performance. The results indicate the sensitivity of the final part behavior is quite sensitive to the choice of the slowness parameter in the Wang et al. model. Results also show the need, albeit less than that of the choice of fiber interaction model, to include the extrudate swell and deposition within the flow domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Graphene Oxide: Effect of Reduction on Electrical Conductivity
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020025
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the effect of reduction on the electrical conductivity of Graphene Oxide (GO) is investigated. The aim of this fabrication was to render electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding to thin polymer films using GO as fillers. The electrical conductivity was determined using
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In this study, the effect of reduction on the electrical conductivity of Graphene Oxide (GO) is investigated. The aim of this fabrication was to render electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding to thin polymer films using GO as fillers. The electrical conductivity was determined using the four-probe method and shielding effectiveness was theoretically determined using the experimentally obtained conductivity values. The initial oxidation of graphite was performed using Hummers’ method and the oxidized GO was dispersed in water for further exfoliation by ultrasonication. Thin films of sonicated GO dispersions were solution casted and dried in a convection oven at 50 °C overnight. The dried films were treated with 48% hydrobromic acid (HBr), 95% hydrochloric acid (HCl) or 66% hydroiodic acid (HI) for 2 h, 24 h or 48 h. A partial factorial design of experiments based on Taguchi method was used to identify the best reducing agent to obtain maximum electrical conductivity in the partially reduced GO films. The experimental analysis indicates that the electrical resistivity of GO is highly dependent on the type of acid treatment and the samples treated with HI acid exhibited lowest resistivity of ~0.003 Ω·cm. The drop in resistivity value after chemical reduction was of the order of 10,000 times, and range obtained in this work is among the lowest reported so far. The theoretical EMI shielding of the reduced GO film provided a shielding effectiveness of 5.06 dB at 12 GHz. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low-Velocity Impact Properties of Sandwich Structures with Aluminum Foam Cores and CFRP Face Sheets
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020024
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Within this contribution, the low-velocity impact behavior of sandwich structures was investigated. The sandwich structures consisted of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) face sheets in various setups, and different core structures, including an open-cell and a closed-cell aluminum foam. The matrix of the
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Within this contribution, the low-velocity impact behavior of sandwich structures was investigated. The sandwich structures consisted of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) face sheets in various setups, and different core structures, including an open-cell and a closed-cell aluminum foam. The matrix of the face sheets was foamed polyurethane, which also acts as the adhesive connecting the face sheets to the core. Low-velocity indentation tests were carried out with multiple sandwich configurations. The indentation behavior was further examined by additional quasi-static indentation tests, and in situ indentation tests sequentially recorded by X-ray computed tomography. Both the low velocity indentation tests and the quasi-static tests were supported by digital image correlation measurements of the lower specimen surfaces. The overall indentation behavior was described consistently to sandwich structures with different material combinations in literature. The influence of each sandwich configuration parameter on the indentation behavior was determined and described in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulating Mold Filling in Compression Resin Transfer Molding (CRTM) Using a Three-Dimensional Finite-Volume Formulation
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020023
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Light-weight structural components are increasingly made of continuous fiber reinforced plastics (CoFRP), but their mass production is still very expensive. Because of its high automation potential, especially the Compression Resin Transfer Molding (CRTM) process gains more and more attention. Numerical mold filling simulations
[...] Read more.
Light-weight structural components are increasingly made of continuous fiber reinforced plastics (CoFRP), but their mass production is still very expensive. Because of its high automation potential, especially the Compression Resin Transfer Molding (CRTM) process gains more and more attention. Numerical mold filling simulations help to optimize this process and can avoid expensive experimental studies. Here, we present a new method to simulate mold filling in CRTM using a full three-dimensional finite-volume (FV) method. In comparison to known finite-element (FE) methods, it contains a compressible two-phase/Volume-of-Fluid description of the air- and resin-phase. This approach is combined with a moving mesh to account for the change of cavity height during the process, which results in a change of fiber volume fractions and thus permeabilities. We verify the method by comparison to analytic solutions of the Darcy equation and to solutions of state-of-the-art mold filling simulation software. The presented method enables CRTM mold filling simulation of complex parts, which is shown in two application examples. Furthermore, this shows the potential of using FV-based tools to simulate mold filling in RTM process variants containing non-constant cavity geometries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Patch Optimization with Integrated Kinematic Draping Simulation for Continuous–Discontinuous Fiber-Reinforced Composite Structures
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020022
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Discontinuous fiber-reinforced polymers (DiCoFRP) in combination with local continuous fiber reinforced polymers (CoFRP) provide both a high design freedom and high weight-specific mechanical properties. For the optimization of CoFRP patches on complexly shaped DiCoFRP structures, an optimization strategy is needed which considers manufacturing
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Discontinuous fiber-reinforced polymers (DiCoFRP) in combination with local continuous fiber reinforced polymers (CoFRP) provide both a high design freedom and high weight-specific mechanical properties. For the optimization of CoFRP patches on complexly shaped DiCoFRP structures, an optimization strategy is needed which considers manufacturing constraints during the optimization procedure. Therefore, a genetic algorithm is combined with a kinematic draping simulation. To determine the optimal patch position with regard to structural performance and overall material consumption, a multi-objective optimization strategy is used. The resulting Pareto front and a corresponding heat-map of the patch position are useful tools for the design engineer to choose the right amount of reinforcement. The proposed patch optimization procedure is applied to two example structures and the effect of different optimization setups is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of the Oxygen Permeability of a Composite Container
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020021
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
A kinetic model has been derived from the classical (Fick and Henry’s) laws of the gas theory for predicting the oxygen permeability of a closed composite container, initially filled by pure nitrogen under a pressure slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure. Its two
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A kinetic model has been derived from the classical (Fick and Henry’s) laws of the gas theory for predicting the oxygen permeability of a closed composite container, initially filled by pure nitrogen under a pressure slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure. Its two main parameters, namely the coefficients of oxygen solubility and diffusion, were determined beforehand by routine laboratory tests of oxygen permeation at 20, 30, and 45 °C. It appears clearly that oxygen molecules will quickly cross the composite wall to progressively modify the gas composition inside the container. Several solutions are proposed for trying to reduce the oxygen permeability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fibre Length Reduction in Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymers during Compounding and Injection Moulding—Experiments Versus Numerical Prediction of Fibre Breakage
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020020
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
To establish injection-moulded, natural fibre-reinforced polymers in the automotive industry, numerical simulations are important. To include the breakage behaviour of natural fibres in simulations, a profound understanding is necessary. In this study, the length and width reduction of flax and sisal fibre bundles
[...] Read more.
To establish injection-moulded, natural fibre-reinforced polymers in the automotive industry, numerical simulations are important. To include the breakage behaviour of natural fibres in simulations, a profound understanding is necessary. In this study, the length and width reduction of flax and sisal fibre bundles were analysed experimentally during compounding and injection moulding. Further an optical analysis of the fibre breakage behaviour was performed via scanning electron microscopy and during fibre tensile testing with an ultra-high-speed camera. The fibre breakage of flax and sisal during injection moulding was modelled using a micromechanical model. The experimental and simulative results consistently show that during injection moulding the fibre length is not reduced further; the fibre length was already significantly reduced during compounding. For the mechanical properties of a fibre-reinforced composite it is important to overachieve the critical fibre length in the injection moulded component. The micromechanical model could be used to predict the necessary fibre length in the granules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Capillary Characterization of Fibrous Reinforcement and Optimization of Injection Strategy in Resin Transfer Molding
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020019
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
During composite manufacturing, minimizing the residual void content is a key issue to ensure optimal mechanical performance of final products. For injection processes such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), the impregnation velocity has a direct impact on void creation at the flow front
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During composite manufacturing, minimizing the residual void content is a key issue to ensure optimal mechanical performance of final products. For injection processes such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), the impregnation velocity has a direct impact on void creation at the flow front by mechanical entrapment of air bubbles. Previous work proposed to study capillary imbibition in fibrous reinforcement to determine optimal filling conditions during practical manufacturing. The objective of this study is to investigate further this possibility. For that purpose, an improved experimental procedure is proposed to estimate the optimal impregnation velocity from capillary rise tests and understand its effect in parts of varying geometry. Capillary rise experiments were carried out with an enhanced experimental protocol, and a new post processing technique was evaluated to analyze the results. The position of the capillary flow front was then used to deduce the optimal impregnation velocity range based on the Lucas-Washburn flow model. A series of injections were also carried out with a laboratory scale RTM mold to study the influence of flow velocity on the residual void content. Results show that the prediction from capillary characterization is close to the optimal velocity value deduced from manufacturing experiments. The study also highlights the importance of void transport during processing and suggests that the injection strategy (i.e., flow rate history) and the mold configuration (i.e., divergent versus convergent flow) are important process parameters that may influence void content and cycle time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Materials Applied to Structural Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Performance of Ecofriendly Epoxy/Multilayer Graphene Oxide Composites with Flame-Retardant Functional Groups
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020018
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to prepare ecofriendly flame retardants. Using the –OH and –COOH functional groups of multilayer graphene oxide (GO) for the hydrolytic condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), TEOS was grafted onto GO to form Si-GO. Subsequently, p-aminophenol (AP) was grafted onto Si-GO to
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This study aimed to prepare ecofriendly flame retardants. Using the –OH and –COOH functional groups of multilayer graphene oxide (GO) for the hydrolytic condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), TEOS was grafted onto GO to form Si-GO. Subsequently, p-aminophenol (AP) was grafted onto Si-GO to produce Si-GA, forming composite materials with epoxy (EP). The structures and properties of the composite materials were examined with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the limiting oxygen index (LOI). In terms of structure, FTIR observed two characteristic peaks of Si-GO, namely Si–O–C and Si-O-Si, indicating that TEOS was successfully grafted onto GO. TGA was used to determine the thermal stability of the epoxy/Si-GA composites; with the increase in Si-GA, the char yield of the materials increased from 15.6 wt % (pure epoxy) to 25 wt % (epoxy/10 wt % Si-GA), indicating that Si-GA effectively enhanced the thermal stability of the epoxy matrix. Lastly, the flame retardant tests determined that the LOI value rose from 19% (pure epoxy) to 26% (epoxy/10 wt % Si-GA), proving that graphene with modified silicon can be used to enhance the flame retardancy of epoxy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Manufacturing and Mechanical Properties of Graphene Coated Glass Fabric and Epoxy Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2020017
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The processing characteristics and mechanical properties of glass fabric reinforcements coated with graphene nanoparticles were investigated. Graphene was coated onto either one or both sides of a plain weave glass fabric. The coated fabrics were investigated to measure key process characterization parameters used
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The processing characteristics and mechanical properties of glass fabric reinforcements coated with graphene nanoparticles were investigated. Graphene was coated onto either one or both sides of a plain weave glass fabric. The coated fabrics were investigated to measure key process characterization parameters used for vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process which are, reinforcement compaction response, in-plane, and transverse permeability. It was found that graphene coated glass reinforcements were stiffer than the pure glass reinforcements which will have direct influence on final fiber volume fraction obtained during VARTM processing. The permeability measurement results show that the graphene coated reinforcements filled relatively slower compared with the pure glass samples. Composite samples were then tested for flexural and low velocity impact. The initial results show that the flexural modulus did not change as the wt % of graphene increases. However, a decrease in flexural strength with increasing wt % of graphene was observed. It was also observed that the coating of graphene on glass reinforcements caused delamination between plies and resisted localized damage under low velocity impact as compared to pure glass samples. Full article
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