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Batteries, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in 2016
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 2; doi:10.3390/batteries3010002
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Batteries would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/batteries3010001
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the
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Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Test Method for Thermal Characterization of Li-Ion Cells and Verification of Cooling Concepts
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/batteries3010003
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as
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Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as heat source location, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a single cell in order to design appropriate cooling measures. This paper describes an advanced test facility, which allows not only an estimation of the thermal properties of a battery cell, but also the verification of proposed cooling strategies in operation. To do this, an active measuring unit consisting of a temperature and heat flux density sensor and a Peltier element was developed. These temperature/heat flux sensing (THFS) units are uniformly arranged around a battery cell with a spatial resolution of 25 mm. Consequently, the temperature or heat flux density can be controlled individually, thus forming regions with constant temperature (cooling) or zero heat flux (insulation). This test setup covers the whole development loop from thermal characterization to the design and verification of the proposed cooling strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Ionic Liquid-Based Non-Aqueous Electrolytes for Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 4; doi:10.3390/batteries3010004
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The voltage of an alkaline electrolyte-based battery is often limited by the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V). As an alternative to water, ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte has been shown to exhibit excellent proton conducting properties and a wide electrochemical stability
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The voltage of an alkaline electrolyte-based battery is often limited by the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V). As an alternative to water, ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte has been shown to exhibit excellent proton conducting properties and a wide electrochemical stability window, and can be used in proton conducting batteries. In this study, we used IL/acid mixtures to replace the 30 wt % KOH aqueous electrolyte in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries, and verified the proton conducting character of these mixtures through electrochemical charge/discharge experiments. Dilution of ILs with acetic acid was found to effectively increase proton conductivity. By using 2 M acetic acid in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, stable charge/discharge characteristics were obtained, including low charge/discharge overpotentials, a discharge voltage plateau at ~1.2 V, a specific capacity of 161.9 mAh·g−1, and a stable cycling performance for an AB5 metal hydride anode with a (Ni,Co,Zn)(OH)2 cathode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Domain Size of Phase-Separated NaxCoO2 as Investigated by X-Ray Microdiffraction
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/batteries3010005
Received: 7 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
O3-NaCoO2 is a promising cathode material for sodium ion secondary batteries (SIBs). NaxCoO2 shows phase separation (PS) into the O3 and O3 phases in the Na concentration range of 0.89 x 0.99. In order to
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O3-NaCoO 2 is a promising cathode material for sodium ion secondary batteries (SIBs). Na x CoO 2 shows phase separation (PS) into the O3 and O 3 phases in the Na concentration range of 0.89 x 0.99. In order to estimate the domain size (r) in the two-phase region, we performed X-ray microdiffraction (XRMD) of thin films of Na x CoO 2 at x = 0.97 and ∼1. We found that r (≈400 nm) of the O 3 domain is comparable to the particle size d (=331 ± 87 nm) in the as-grown O3-NaCoO 2 film. This observation suggests that individual particles of Na x CoO 2 are single phase to minimize the strain at the O3–O 3 phase boundary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Sodium-Ion Battery Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH)2
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/batteries3010006
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH)2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH)2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling), and an overcharge at low temperature.
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Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH)2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH)2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling), and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH)2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH)2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH)2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH)2/α-Ni(OH)2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH)2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH)2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH)2 is also included in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Low Voltage Charge/Discharge Behavior of Manganese Hexacyanoferrate
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/batteries3010007
Received: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Recently, Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) have been reported to exhibit a low voltage charge/discharge behavior with high capacity (300–545 mAh/g) in lithium-ion secondary batteries (LIBs) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Sodium-Ion Battery Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/batteries3010008
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries
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Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for the OCV behavior, such as resting period, step-size of the pulse test, testing current amplitude, hysteresis phenomena, and terminal voltage relationship, are investigated and evaluated. To this end, a general OCV model based on state of charge (SOC) tracking is developed and validated with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/batteries3010010
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered
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Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH) of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management System: A Review
Batteries 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/batteries3010009
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It
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The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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