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Batteries, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Doping LiMnPO4 with Cobalt and Nickel: A First Principle Study
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 11; doi:10.3390/batteries3020011
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural
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A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural stability and high theoretical capacity. The investigation focuses on LiMnPO4, which could offer an improved cell potential (4.1 V) with respect to the reference LiFePO4 compound, but it is characterized by poor lithium intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics. Substitution of cations like Co and Ni in the olivine structure of LiMnPO4 was recently reported in an attempt to improve the electrochemical performances. Here the electronic structure and lithium intercalation potential of Ni- and Co-doped LiMnPO4 were calculated in the framework of the Hubbard U density functional theory (DFT+U) method for highly correlated materials. Moreover, the diffusion process of lithium in the host structures was simulated, and the activation barriers in the doped and pristine structures were compared. Our calculation predicted that doping increases Li insertion potential while activation barriers for Li diffusion remain similar to the pristine material. Moreover, Ni and Co doping induces the formation of impurity states near the Fermi level and significantly reduces the band gap of LiMnPO4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 12; doi:10.3390/batteries3020012
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least
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Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS), along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC). Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 13; doi:10.3390/batteries3020013
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive
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Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC) based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC), and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Modeling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in 18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 14; doi:10.3390/batteries3020014
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK),
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In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties of Materials, Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Developing Electrolyte for a Soluble Lead Redox Flow Battery by Reprocessing Spent Lead Acid Battery Electrodes
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 15; doi:10.3390/batteries3020015
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The archival value of this paper is the investigation of novel methods to recover lead (II) ions from spent lead acid battery electrodes to be used directly as electrolyte for a soluble lead flow battery. The methods involved heating electrodes of spent lead
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The archival value of this paper is the investigation of novel methods to recover lead (II) ions from spent lead acid battery electrodes to be used directly as electrolyte for a soluble lead flow battery. The methods involved heating electrodes of spent lead acid batteries in methanesulfonic acid and hydrogen peroxide to dissolve solid lead and lead dioxide out of the electrode material. The processes yielded lead methanesulfonate, which is an electrolyte for the soluble lead acid battery. The lead (II) ions in the electrolyte were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and their electrochemistry confirmed using cyclic voltammetry. The concentration of lead (II) ions was determined and it was found that using the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide yielded the highest concentration of lead (II) ions. The method was therefore found to be sufficient to make electrolyte for a soluble lead cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Battery Technologies--From Materials to Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Using Metallic Na on the Interfacial and Transport Properties of Na-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2017, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/batteries3020016
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Na2Ti3O7 is a promising negative electrode for rechargeable Na-ion batteries; however, its good properties in terms of insertion voltage and specific capacity are hampered by the poor capacity retention reported in the past. The interfacial and ionic/electronic properties
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Na2Ti3O7 is a promising negative electrode for rechargeable Na-ion batteries; however, its good properties in terms of insertion voltage and specific capacity are hampered by the poor capacity retention reported in the past. The interfacial and ionic/electronic properties are key factors to understanding the electrochemical performance of Na2Ti3O7. Therefore, its study is of utmost importance. In addition, although rather unexplored, the use of metallic Na in half-cell studies is another important issue due to the fact that side-reactions will be induced when metallic Na is in contact with the electrolyte. Hence, in this work the interfacial and transport properties of full Na-ion cells have been investigated and compared with half-cells upon electrochemical cycling by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (conventional XPS and Auger parameter analysis) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell has been assembled with C-coated Na2Ti3O7 against metallic Na whilst the full-cell uses C-coated Na2Ti3O7 as negative electrode and NaFePO4 as positive electrode, delivering 112 Wh/kganode+cathode in the 2nd cycle. When comparing both types of cells, it has been found that the interfacial properties, the OCV (open circuit voltage) and the electrode–-electrolyte interphase behavior are more stable in the full-cell than in the half-cell. The electronic transition from insulator to conductor previously observed in a half-cell for Na2Ti3O7 has also been detected in the full-cell impedance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Sodium-Ion Battery Materials)
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