Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Plants, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-173

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species
Plants 2013, 2(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/plants2010001
Received: 26 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation [...] Read more.
Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark) and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C) was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g) and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pollen Tube Growth and Self-Compatibility in Almond
Plants 2013, 2(1), 50-56; doi:10.3390/plants2010050
Received: 5 December 2012 / Revised: 2 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although pollen tube growth has been an important criterion for self-compatibility evaluation in almond, there is not a clear-cut separation between positive and negative growth of pollen tubes in the different genotypes. The examination of pollen tube growth after selfing almond seedlings [...] Read more.
Although pollen tube growth has been an important criterion for self-compatibility evaluation in almond, there is not a clear-cut separation between positive and negative growth of pollen tubes in the different genotypes. The examination of pollen tube growth after selfing almond seedlings has allowed establishing different levels of compatibility, but not a clear-cut separation between self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) genotypes, related to the presence of pseudo-self-compatibility in almond. Consequently, a relationship between pollen tube growth and self-compatibility in almond may be established for evaluating the seedlings in breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars
Plants 2013, 2(1), 57-71; doi:10.3390/plants2010057
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 15 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. Full article
Open AccessArticle PiSCP1 and PiCDPK2 Localize to Peroxisomes and Are Involved in Pollen Tube Growth in Petunia Inflata
Plants 2013, 2(1), 72-86; doi:10.3390/plants2010072
Received: 6 January 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Petunia inflata small CDPK-interacting protein 1 (PiSCP1) was identified as a pollen expressed PiCDPK1 interacting protein using the yeast two hybrid system and the interaction confirmed using pull-down and phosphorylation assays. PiSCP1 is pollen specific and shares amino acid homology with uncharacterized [...] Read more.
Petunia inflata small CDPK-interacting protein 1 (PiSCP1) was identified as a pollen expressed PiCDPK1 interacting protein using the yeast two hybrid system and the interaction confirmed using pull-down and phosphorylation assays. PiSCP1 is pollen specific and shares amino acid homology with uncharacterized proteins from diverse species of higher plants, but no protein of known function. Expression of PiSCP1-GFP in vivo inhibited pollen tube growth and was shown to localize to peroxisomes in growing pollen tubes. As PiCDPK1 is plasma membrane localized, we investigated the localization of a second isoform, PiCDPK2, and show that it co-localizes to peroxisomes with PiSCP1 and that the two proteins interact in the yeast 2 hybrid interaction assay, suggesting that interaction with the latter CDPK isoform is likely the one of biological relevance. Both PiCDPK2 and PiSCP1 affect pollen tube growth, presumably by mediating peroxisome function, however how they do so is currently not clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Systems Modeling at Multiple Levels of Regulation: Linking Systems and Genetic Networks to Spatially Explicit Plant Populations
Plants 2013, 2(1), 16-49; doi:10.3390/plants2010016
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selection and adaptation of individuals to their underlying environments are highly dynamical processes, encompassing interactions between the individual and its seasonally changing environment, synergistic or antagonistic interactions between individuals and interactions amongst the regulatory genes within the individual. Plants are useful organisms [...] Read more.
Selection and adaptation of individuals to their underlying environments are highly dynamical processes, encompassing interactions between the individual and its seasonally changing environment, synergistic or antagonistic interactions between individuals and interactions amongst the regulatory genes within the individual. Plants are useful organisms to study within systems modeling because their sedentary nature simplifies interactions between individuals and the environment, and many important plant processes such as germination or flowering are dependent on annual cycles which can be disrupted by climate behavior. Sedentism makes plants relevant candidates for spatially explicit modeling that is tied in with dynamical environments. We propose that in order to fully understand the complexities behind plant adaptation, a system that couples aspects from systems biology with population and landscape genetics is required. A suitable system could be represented by spatially explicit individual-based models where the virtual individuals are located within time-variable heterogeneous environments and contain mutable regulatory gene networks. These networks could directly interact with the environment, and should provide a useful approach to studying plant adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex System Theory Applied to Plant Sciences)
Open AccessReview Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase
Plants 2013, 2(1), 87-106; doi:10.3390/plants2010087
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of [...] Read more.
In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)
Open AccessReview Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth
Plants 2013, 2(1), 107-147; doi:10.3390/plants2010107
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ [...] Read more.
The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)
Figures

Open AccessReview Polar Expansion Dynamics in the Plant Kingdom: A Diverse and Multifunctional Journey on the Path to Pollen Tubes
Plants 2013, 2(1), 148-173; doi:10.3390/plants2010148
Received: 28 December 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polar expansion is a widespread phenomenon in plants spanning all taxonomic groups from the Charophycean Green Algae to pollen tubes in Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. Current data strongly suggests that many common features are shared amongst cells displaying polar growth mechanics including changes [...] Read more.
Polar expansion is a widespread phenomenon in plants spanning all taxonomic groups from the Charophycean Green Algae to pollen tubes in Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. Current data strongly suggests that many common features are shared amongst cells displaying polar growth mechanics including changes to the structural features of localized regions of the cell wall, mobilization of targeted secretion mechanisms, employment of the actin cytoskeleton for directing secretion and in many cases, endocytosis and coordinated interaction of multiple signal transduction mechanisms prompted by external biotic and abiotic cues. The products of polar expansion perform diverse functions including delivery of male gametes to the egg, absorption, anchorage, adhesion and photo-absorption efficacy. A comparative analysis of polar expansion dynamics is provided with special emphasis on those found in early divergent plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Plants Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
plants@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Plants
Back to Top