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Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi di Siena, via Mattioli 4, Siena 53100, Italy
Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Bologna, via Irnerio, Bologna 40126, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Abstract: In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall.
Keywords: pollen; pollen tube; transglutaminase; cytoskeleton; cell wall; polyamines; protein transport; protein secretion
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Cai, G.; Serafini-Fracassini, D.; Del Duca, S. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase. Plants 2013, 2, 87-106.
Cai G, Serafini-Fracassini D, Del Duca S. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase. Plants. 2013; 2(1):87-106.
Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano. 2013. "Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase." Plants 2, no. 1: 87-106.