Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Plants 2013, 2(1), 87-106; doi:10.3390/plants2010087
Review

Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

1
, 2
 and 2,*
Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [621 KB, uploaded 6 March 2013]
Abstract: In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall.
Keywords: pollen; pollen tube; transglutaminase; cytoskeleton; cell wall; polyamines; protein transport; protein secretion pollen; pollen tube; transglutaminase; cytoskeleton; cell wall; polyamines; protein transport; protein secretion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Cai, G.; Serafini-Fracassini, D.; Del Duca, S. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase. Plants 2013, 2, 87-106.

AMA Style

Cai G, Serafini-Fracassini D, Del Duca S. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase. Plants. 2013; 2(1):87-106.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano. 2013. "Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase." Plants 2, no. 1: 87-106.

Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert