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Electronics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 332-399

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Energy Conservative Wireless Sensor Networks Approach for Precision Agriculture
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 387-399; doi:10.3390/electronics2040387
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to prolong the lifetime of finite-capacity batteries and how to enhance the fault-tolerant ability of networks are the major challenges in design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present an energy-efficient system of WSNs
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Reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to prolong the lifetime of finite-capacity batteries and how to enhance the fault-tolerant ability of networks are the major challenges in design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present an energy-efficient system of WSNs for black pepper monitoring in tropical areas. At first, we optimized the base station antenna height in order to facilitate reliable communication, after which the Energy-efficient Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (ESPIN) routing protocol was utilized to solve the energy saving challenge. We conducted radio propagation experiments in actual black pepper fields. The practical test results illustrate that the ESPIN protocol reduces redundant data transmission and whole energy consumption of network, and enhances the success rate of data transmission compared with traditional Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (SPIN) protocol. To further optimize topology for improving the network lifetime, we designed a symmetrical double-chain (SDC) topology which is suitable to be deployed in farmland and compared the lifetime with traditional tree topology. Experiment results indicate SDC topology has a longer network lifetime than traditional tree topology. The system we designed will greatly help farmers to make more informed decisions on the efficient use of resources and hence improve black pepper productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fault-Tolerant Routing)

Review

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Open AccessReview Variability and Reliability of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 332-367; doi:10.3390/electronics2040332
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract
Excellent electrical performance and extreme sensitivity to chemical species in semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (s-SWCNTs) motivated the study of using them to replace silicon as a next generation field effect transistor (FET) for electronic, optoelectronic, and biological applications. In addition, use of SWCNTs
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Excellent electrical performance and extreme sensitivity to chemical species in semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (s-SWCNTs) motivated the study of using them to replace silicon as a next generation field effect transistor (FET) for electronic, optoelectronic, and biological applications. In addition, use of SWCNTs in the recently studied flexible electronics appears more promising because of SWCNTs’ inherent flexibility and superior electrical performance over silicon-based materials. All these applications require SWCNT-FETs to have a wafer-scale uniform and reliable performance over time to a level that is at least comparable with the currently used silicon-based nanoscale FETs. Due to similarity in device configuration and its operation, SWCNT-FET inherits most of the variability and reliability concerns of silicon-based FETs, namely the ones originating from line edge roughness, metal work-function variation, oxide defects, etc. Additional challenges arise from the lack of chirality control in as-grown and post-processed SWCNTs and also from the presence of unstable hydroxyl (–OH) groups near the interface of SWCNT and dielectric. In this review article, we discuss these variability and reliability origins in SWCNT-FETs. Proposed solutions for mitigating each of these sources are presented and a future perspective is provided in general, which are required for commercial use of SWCNT-FETs in future nanoelectronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
Figures

Open AccessReview Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 368-386; doi:10.3390/electronics2040368
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly valued as energy and thermal dissipationless systems. A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is very promising for efficient spin manipulation and
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Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly valued as energy and thermal dissipationless systems. A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is very promising for efficient spin manipulation and the creation of a full spectrum of beyond-CMOS spin-based nano-devices. In the present article, the recent advancements in graphene spintronics are reviewed, introducing the observation of spin coherence and the spin Hall effect. Some research has reported the strong spin coherence of graphene. Avoiding undesirable influences from the substrate are crucial. Magnetism and spintronics arising from graphene edges are reviewed based on my previous results. In spite of carbon-based material with only sp2 bonds, the zigzag-type atomic structure of graphene edges theoretically produces spontaneous spin polarization of electrons due to mutual Coulomb interaction of extremely high electron density of states (edge states) localizing at the flat energy band. We fabricate honeycomb-like arrays of low-defect hexagonal nanopores (graphene nanomeshes; GNMs) on graphenes, which produce a large amount of zigzag pore edges, by using a nonlithographic method (nanoporous alumina templates) and critical temperature annealing under high vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. We observe large-magnitude ferromagnetism, which arises from polarized spins localizing at the hydrogen-terminated zigzag-nanopore edges of the GNMs, even at room temperature. Moreover, spin pumping effects are found for magnetic fields applied in parallel with the few-layer GNM planes. Strong spin coherence and spontaneously polarized edge spins of graphene can be expected to lead to novel spintronics with invisible, flexible, and ultra-light (wearable) features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)

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