Next Article in Journal
Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index
Previous Article in Journal
Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Redundancy + Reconfigurability = Recoverability
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 387-399; doi:10.3390/electronics2040387

An Energy Conservative Wireless Sensor Networks Approach for Precision Agriculture

College of Information Science and Technology, Hainan 570228, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fault-Tolerant Routing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [435 KB, uploaded 11 December 2013]   |   Browse Figures


Reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to prolong the lifetime of finite-capacity batteries and how to enhance the fault-tolerant ability of networks are the major challenges in design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present an energy-efficient system of WSNs for black pepper monitoring in tropical areas. At first, we optimized the base station antenna height in order to facilitate reliable communication, after which the Energy-efficient Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (ESPIN) routing protocol was utilized to solve the energy saving challenge. We conducted radio propagation experiments in actual black pepper fields. The practical test results illustrate that the ESPIN protocol reduces redundant data transmission and whole energy consumption of network, and enhances the success rate of data transmission compared with traditional Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (SPIN) protocol. To further optimize topology for improving the network lifetime, we designed a symmetrical double-chain (SDC) topology which is suitable to be deployed in farmland and compared the lifetime with traditional tree topology. Experiment results indicate SDC topology has a longer network lifetime than traditional tree topology. The system we designed will greatly help farmers to make more informed decisions on the efficient use of resources and hence improve black pepper productivity.
Keywords: WSN; energy-efficient; fault-tolerant route; antenna height; precision agriculture WSN; energy-efficient; fault-tolerant route; antenna height; precision agriculture
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Shen, C. An Energy Conservative Wireless Sensor Networks Approach for Precision Agriculture. Electronics 2013, 2, 387-399.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert