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Electronics, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-112

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Design of a Parallel Sampling Encoder for Analog to Information (A2I) Converters: Theory, Architecture and CMOS Implementation
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 57-79; doi:10.3390/electronics2010057
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We discuss the architecture and design of parallel sampling front ends for analog to information (A2I) converters. As a way of example, we detail the design of a custom 0.5 µm CMOS implementation of a mixed signal parallel sampling encoder architecture. The system
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We discuss the architecture and design of parallel sampling front ends for analog to information (A2I) converters. As a way of example, we detail the design of a custom 0.5 µm CMOS implementation of a mixed signal parallel sampling encoder architecture. The system consists of configurable parallel analog processing channels, whose output is sampled by traditional analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The analog front-end modulates the signal of interest with a high-speed digital chipping sequence and integrates the result prior to sampling at a low rate. An FPGA is employed to generate the chipping sequences and process the digitized samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Far Field Extrapolation from Near Field Interactions and Shielding Influence Investigations Based on a FE-PEEC Coupling Method
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 80-93; doi:10.3390/electronics2010080
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 19 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
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Abstract
Regarding standards, it is well established that common mode currents are the main source of far field emitted by variable frequency drive (VFD)-cable-motor associations. These currents are generated by the combination of floating potentials with stray capacitances between these floating potential tracks and
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Regarding standards, it is well established that common mode currents are the main source of far field emitted by variable frequency drive (VFD)-cable-motor associations. These currents are generated by the combination of floating potentials with stray capacitances between these floating potential tracks and the mechanical parts connected to the earth (the heatsink or cables are usual examples). Nowadays, due to frequency and power increases, the systematic compliance to EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) becomes increasingly difficult and costly for industrials. As a consequence, there is a well-identified need to investigate practical and low cost solutions to reduce the radiated fields of VFD-cable-motor associations. A well-adapted solution is the shielding of wound components well known as the major source of near magnetic field. However, this solution is not convenient, it is expensive and may not be efficient regarding far field reduction. Optimizing the components placement could be a better and cheaper solution. As a consequence, dedicated tools have to be developed to efficiently investigate not easy comprehendible phenomena and finally to control EMC disturbances using component placement, layout geometry, shielding design if needed. However, none of the modeling methods usually used in industry complies with large frequency range and far field models including magnetic materials, multilayer PCBs, and shielding. The contribution of this paper is to show that alternatives regarding modeling solutions exist and can be used to get in-deep analysis of such complex structures. It is shown in this paper that near field investigations can give information on far field behavior. It is illustrated by an investigation of near field interactions and shielding influence using a FE-PEEC hybrid method. The test case combining a common mode filter with the floating potentials tracks of an inverter is based on an industrial and commercialized VFD. The near field interactions between the common mode inductance and the tracks with floating potentials are revealed. Then, the influence of the common mode inductance shielding is analyzed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design of a Higher Current ZVS-PWM Converter for Industrial Applications
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 94-112; doi:10.3390/electronics2010094
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
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Abstract
A new auxiliary circuit that can be implemented in DC-DC and AC-DC ZVS-PWM converters is proposed in the paper. The circuit is for ZVS-PWM converters used in applications where high-frequency operation is needed and the load current is higher than that of typical
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A new auxiliary circuit that can be implemented in DC-DC and AC-DC ZVS-PWM converters is proposed in the paper. The circuit is for ZVS-PWM converters used in applications where high-frequency operation is needed and the load current is higher than that of typical ZVS-PWM converters. In the paper, the operation of a new ZVS-PWM converter is described, its steady-state operation is analyzed, and a procedure for its design is derived and then demonstrated. The feasibility of the new converter is confirmed by experimental results obtained from a prototype. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 1-34; doi:10.3390/electronics2010001
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (3466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ageing population and a multitude of neurological and cardiovascular illnesses that cannot be mitigated by medication alone have resulted in a significant growth in the number of patients that require implantable electronic devices. These range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators,
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Ageing population and a multitude of neurological and cardiovascular illnesses that cannot be mitigated by medication alone have resulted in a significant growth in the number of patients that require implantable electronic devices. These range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, to deep brain, nerve, and bone stimulators. Long-term implants present specific engineering challenges, including low energy consumption and stable performance. Resorbable electronics may offer excellent short-term performance without the need for surgical removal. However, most electronic materials have poor bio- and cytocompatibility, resulting in immune reactions and infections. This paper reviews the current situation and highlights challenges for future advancements. Full article

Other

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Open AccessNew Book Received Handbook of RF, Microwave, and Millimeter-Wave Components. Edited by Leonid A. Belov, Sergey M. Smolskiy and Victor N. Kochemasov, Artech House, 2012; 504 pages. Price: £119.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-209-5
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 35-40; doi:10.3390/electronics2010035
Received: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
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Abstract
This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range
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This unique and comprehensive resource offers you a detailed treatment of the operations principles, key parameters, and specific characteristics of active and passive RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components. The book covers both linear and nonlinear components that are used in a wide range of application areas, from communications and information sciences, to avionics, space, and military engineering. Full article
Open AccessTechnical Note Fault Tree Analysis for Safety/Security Verification in Aviation Software
Electronics 2013, 2(1), 41-56; doi:10.3390/electronics2010041
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 15 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Next Generation Air Traffic Management system (NextGen) is a blueprint of the future National Airspace System. Supporting NextGen is a nation-wide Aviation Simulation Network (ASN), which allows integration of a variety of real-time simulations to facilitate development and validation of the NextGen
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The Next Generation Air Traffic Management system (NextGen) is a blueprint of the future National Airspace System. Supporting NextGen is a nation-wide Aviation Simulation Network (ASN), which allows integration of a variety of real-time simulations to facilitate development and validation of the NextGen software by simulating a wide range of operational scenarios. The ASN system is an environment, including both simulated and human-in-the-loop real-life components (pilots and air traffic controllers). Real Time Distributed Simulation (RTDS) developed at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, a suite of applications providing low and medium fidelity en-route simulation capabilities, is one of the simulations contributing to the ASN. To support the interconnectivity with the ASN, we designed and implemented a dedicated gateway acting as an intermediary, providing logic for two-way communication and transfer messages between RTDS and ASN and storage for the exchanged data. It has been necessary to develop and analyze safety/security requirements for the gateway software based on analysis of system assets, hazards, threats and attacks related to ultimate real-life future implementation. Due to the nature of the system, the focus was placed on communication security and the related safety of the impacted aircraft in the simulation scenario. To support development of safety/security requirements, a well-established fault tree analysis technique was used. This fault tree model-based analysis, supported by a commercial tool, was a foundation to propose mitigations assuring the gateway system safety and security.  Full article

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