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Electronics 2013, 2(1), 1-34; doi:10.3390/electronics2010001
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Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges

 and *
Received: 9 October 2012; in revised form: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
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Abstract: Ageing population and a multitude of neurological and cardiovascular illnesses that cannot be mitigated by medication alone have resulted in a significant growth in the number of patients that require implantable electronic devices. These range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, to deep brain, nerve, and bone stimulators. Long-term implants present specific engineering challenges, including low energy consumption and stable performance. Resorbable electronics may offer excellent short-term performance without the need for surgical removal. However, most electronic materials have poor bio- and cytocompatibility, resulting in immune reactions and infections. This paper reviews the current situation and highlights challenges for future advancements.
Keywords: implantable electronic device; bioresorbable electronics; radio-frequency (RF) wireless powering; encapsulation implantable electronic device; bioresorbable electronics; radio-frequency (RF) wireless powering; encapsulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bazaka, K.; Jacob, M.V. Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges. Electronics 2013, 2, 1-34.

AMA Style

Bazaka K, Jacob MV. Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges. Electronics. 2013; 2(1):1-34.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazaka, Kateryna; Jacob, Mohan V. 2013. "Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges." Electronics 2, no. 1: 1-34.


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