J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(4), 776-798; doi:10.3390/jfb3040776
Article

Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

1 School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2012; in revised form: 25 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Biomaterials)
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Abstract: Synthetic tissue scaffolds have a high potential impact for patients experiencing osteogenesis imperfecta. Using electrospinning, tissue scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL) composite nanofibers were fabricated with two different HAp concentrations—1% and 10% of the solid scaffold weight. After physico-chemical scaffold characterization, rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds in maintenance medium and then in osteogenic medium. Quantitative PCR, colorimetric assays, immunofluorescent labeling, and electron microscopy measured osteogenic cell responses to the HAp/PCL scaffolds. In maintenance conditions, both Hap/PCL scaffolds and control scaffolds supported cell colonization through seven days with minor differences. In osteogenic conditions, the 10% HAp scaffolds exhibited significantly increased ALP assay levels at week 3, consistent with previous reports. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in bone matrix-associated genes on Hap/PCL scaffolds. Osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a trend that both mineralized scaffolds had greater amounts of both proteins, though qPCR results indicated the opposite trend for osteopontin. Additionally, type I collagen expression decreased on HAp scaffolds. These results indicate that cells are sensitive to minor changes in mineral content within nanofibers, even at just 1% w/w, and elucidating the sensing mechanism may lead to optimized osteogenic scaffold designs.
Keywords: nanofiber; scaffold; bone; hydroxyapatite; gene expression

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruckh, T.T.; Carroll, D.A.; Weaver, J.R.; Popat, K.C. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 776-798.

AMA Style

Ruckh TT, Carroll DA, Weaver JR, Popat KC. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(4):776-798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruckh, Timothy T.; Carroll, Derek A.; Weaver, Justin R.; Popat, Ketul C. 2012. "Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 4: 776-798.

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