J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(4), 799-838; doi:10.3390/jfb3040799
Review

Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

1email, 1,2,* email and 3email
Received: 4 July 2012; in revised form: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
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Abstract: Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted.
Keywords: tissue engineering; scaffold design; scaffold fabrication; articular cartilage; joint repair; osteoarthritis; biomimetic; hybrid; zonal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Izadifar, Z.; Chen, X.; Kulyk, W. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 799-838.

AMA Style

Izadifar Z, Chen X, Kulyk W. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(4):799-838.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kulyk, William. 2012. "Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 4: 799-838.



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