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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 154-491

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Open AccessArticle Mitigating Fish-Killing Prymnesium parvum Algal Blooms in Aquaculture Ponds with Clay: The Importance of pH and Clay Type
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 154-174; doi:10.3390/jmse3020154
Received: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
Clay minerals have previously been used to mitigate algal blooms because of their ability to flocculate algal cells or remove nutrients, but also offer considerable potential to remove ichthyotoxins. When a barramundi farm in tropical Australia suffered substantial fish mortalities due to [...] Read more.
Clay minerals have previously been used to mitigate algal blooms because of their ability to flocculate algal cells or remove nutrients, but also offer considerable potential to remove ichthyotoxins. When a barramundi farm in tropical Australia suffered substantial fish mortalities due to a bloom of the ichthyotoxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, the farm manager decided to manipulate pond water N:P ratios through removal of phosphorus by the addition of lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock™) to successfully mitigate ichthyotoxic effects. We conducted Prymnesium culture experiments under a range of N:P ratios, screening 14 different clays (two zeolites, four kaolins, six bentonites and two types of Korean loess) at pH 7 and 9 for cell flocculation and removal of ichthyotoxicity assessed with the RTgill-W1 cell line assay. Application of Phoslock™ to cultures grown at different N:P effectively removed 60%–100% of water-soluble toxicity of live Prymnesium (dependent on nutritional status). While most clays efficiently flocculated Prymnesium cells (≥80% removal), cell removal proved a poor predictor of ichthyotoxin adsorption. Extensive clay screening revealed that at elevated pH, as commonly associated with dense algal blooms, most clays either exacerbated ichthyotoxicity or exhibited significantly reduced toxin adsorption. Interpretation of changes in clay zeta potential at pH 7 and 9 provided valuable insight into clay/ichthyotoxin interactions, yet further research is required to completely understand the adsorption mechanisms. Bentonite-type clays proved best suited for ichthyotoxin removal purposes (100% removal at ecologically relevant pH 9) and offer great potential for on-farm emergency response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Red Tide Research)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Near-Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration in the English Channel
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 193-215; doi:10.3390/jmse3020193
Received: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
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Abstract
The present study investigates the performances of the three-dimensional multicomponent hydro-sedimentary model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) to predict near-surface suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the English Channel (western Europe). Predictions are assessed against satellite-retrieved observations from raw MODIS and MERIS images [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the performances of the three-dimensional multicomponent hydro-sedimentary model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) to predict near-surface suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the English Channel (western Europe). Predictions are assessed against satellite-retrieved observations from raw MODIS and MERIS images for the year 2008 characterized by the highest availability of cloud-free data. Focus is put on improvements obtained with: (1) SSC inputs at the open boundaries; and (2) simple parameterizations of the settling velocity and the critical shear stress. Sensitivity studies confirm the importance of the advection of fine-grained suspended sediments in the central waters of the English Channel exhibiting benefits of refined SSC estimations along the sea boundaries. Improvements obtained with modified formulations of the settling velocity and the critical shear stress finally suggest possible seasonal influences of biological activity and thermal stratification on near-surface SSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport Modeling)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 216-239; doi:10.3390/jmse3020216
Received: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
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Abstract
The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on [...] Read more.
The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N) and Kochi, Japan (32° N). Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2) and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2). Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C) than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Coral Reefs Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle Can the Global Adoption of Genetically Improved Farmed Fish Increase Beyond 10%, and How?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 240-266; doi:10.3390/jmse3020240
Received: 19 April 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
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Abstract
The annual production from global aquaculture has increased rapidly from 2.6 million tons or 3.9% of the total supply of fish, shellfish and mollusks in 1970, to 66.7 million tons or 42.2% in 2012, while capture fisheries have more or less leveled [...] Read more.
The annual production from global aquaculture has increased rapidly from 2.6 million tons or 3.9% of the total supply of fish, shellfish and mollusks in 1970, to 66.7 million tons or 42.2% in 2012, while capture fisheries have more or less leveled out at about 90 million tons per year since the turn of the century. Consequently, the future seafood supply is likely to depend on a further increase of aquaculture production. Unlike terrestrial animal farming, less than 10% of the aquaculture production comes from domesticated and selectively bred farm stocks. This situation has substantial consequences in terms of poorer resource efficiency, poorer product quality and poorer animal welfare. The history of biological and technical challenges when establishing selective breeding programs for aquaculture is discussed, and it is concluded that most aquaculture species may now be domesticated and improved by selection. However, the adoption of selective breeding in aquaculture is progressing slowly. This paper reports on a study carried out in 2012 to identify key issues to address in promoting the development of genetically improved aquaculture stocks. The study involved semi structured interviews of 34 respondents from different sectors of the aquaculture society in East and Southeast Asia, where 76% of the global aquaculture production is located. Based on the interviews and literature review, three key factors are identified: (i) long-term public commitment is often needed for financial support of the breeding nucleus operation (at least during the first five to ten generations of selection); (ii) training at all levels (from government officers and university staff to breeding nucleus and hatchery operators, as well as farmers); and (iii) development of appropriate business models for benefit sharing between the breeding, multiplier and grow-out operators (whether being public, cooperative or private operations). The public support should be invested in efforts of selective breeding on the most important and highest volume species, which may not be a priority for investment by private breeders due to, for instance, long generation intervals and delays in return to investment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Breeding Technology and Its Application in Marine Aquaculture)
Open AccessCommunication Heterophil/Lymphocyte Alterations as a Measure of Stress in American Alligators in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in a Louisiana Intermediate Marsh
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 267-275; doi:10.3390/jmse3020267
Received: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
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Abstract
Numerous anthropogenic factors represent environmental threats to Gulf Coast wetland ecosystems and associated fauna. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have been subject to long-term management and used as ecological and physiological indicators of habitat quality in response to anthropogenic events and [...] Read more.
Numerous anthropogenic factors represent environmental threats to Gulf Coast wetland ecosystems and associated fauna. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have been subject to long-term management and used as ecological and physiological indicators of habitat quality in response to anthropogenic events and stochastic natural disasters. The present study monitored heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (an indicator of stress), in American alligators in a Louisiana intermediate marsh from 2009 to 2011, a time period that coincides with an oil inundation event that occurred in 2011. Sixteen alligators were observed and processed morphometrically (total length, snout-vent length and body mass). Heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were negatively correlated with size, suggesting larger American alligators were physiologically more resilient to the disturbance, more able to actively avoid these poor conditions, or are less affected by localized disturbance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Marine Benthic Habitats and Seabed Suitability Mapping for Potential Ocean Current Energy Siting Offshore Southeast Florida
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 276-298; doi:10.3390/jmse3020276
Received: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 25 May 2015
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Abstract
This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which [...] Read more.
This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which to assess seabed suitability (seabed suitability framework) that can facilitate the siting, and implementation of ocean current energy (OCE) projects. Seafloor geology and benthic biological data were analyzed in conjunction with seafloor core sample geostatistical interpolation to locate suitable substrates for OCE anchoring. Existing submarine cable pathways were considered to determine pathways for power transmission cables that circumvent biologically sensitive areas. Suitability analysis indicates that areas east of the Miami Terrace and north of recently identified deep-sea coral mounds are the most appropriate for OCE siting due to abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biological presence (i.e., little to no benthic communities). Further reconnaissance requires higher resolution maps of geological substrate and benthic community locations to identify specific OCE development locations, classify benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The New Man and the Sea: Climate Change Perceptions and Sustainable Seafood Preferences of Florida Reef Anglers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 299-328; doi:10.3390/jmse3020299
Received: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
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Abstract
Florida Reef stakeholders have downplayed the role of anthropogenic climate change while recognizing the reef system’s degradation. With an emphasis on recreational anglers, a survey using contingent valuation methods investigated stakeholders’ attitudes about the Florida Reef, climate change, and willingness to pay [...] Read more.
Florida Reef stakeholders have downplayed the role of anthropogenic climate change while recognizing the reef system’s degradation. With an emphasis on recreational anglers, a survey using contingent valuation methods investigated stakeholders’ attitudes about the Florida Reef, climate change, and willingness to pay for sustainable and local seafood. Angst expressed about acidification and other climate change effects represents a recent shift of opinion. Supermajorities were willing to pay premiums for sustainably harvested and especially local seafood. Regression analysis revealed trust in seafood labels, travel to coral reefs, political orientation, place of birth, and motorboat use as strong, direct predictors of shopping behavior, age and environmental concerns as moderately influential, and income and education as surprisingly poor predictors. Distrust of authority may motivate some stakeholders, but new attitudes about climate change and the high desirability of local seafood offer potential for renewed regional engagement and market-based incentives for sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Coral Reefs Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle Directional Storm Surge in Enclosed Seas: The Red Sea, the Adriatic, and Venice
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 356-367; doi:10.3390/jmse3020356
Received: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
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Abstract
Storm surge is dependent on wind direction, with maximum surge heights occurring when strong winds blow onshore. It is less obvious what happens when a port city is situated at the end of a long narrow gulf, like Venice at the northwestern [...] Read more.
Storm surge is dependent on wind direction, with maximum surge heights occurring when strong winds blow onshore. It is less obvious what happens when a port city is situated at the end of a long narrow gulf, like Venice at the northwestern end of the Adriatic Sea. Does the narrow marine approach to the port city limit the dangerous wind direction to a span of only a few degrees? This modeling study shows that the response in surge height to wind direction is a sinusoidal curve for port cities at the end of a long inlet, as well as for cities exposed along a straight coastline. Surge height depends on the cosine of the angle between the wind direction and the major axis of the narrow gulf. There is no special protection from storm surge afforded by a narrow ocean-going approach to a port city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Hazards Related to Storm Surge)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature Effects on the Growth Rates and Photosynthetic Activities of Symbiodinium Cells
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 368-381; doi:10.3390/jmse3020368
Received: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
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Abstract
Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability [...] Read more.
Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F) at elevated temperature (33 °C). We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin). The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name) and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature, but Fv/Fm decreased only slightly. These strains may reallocate energy from growth to the repair of damaged photosynthetic machineries or protection pathways. Alternatively, since recoveries of photo-damaged PSII at 33 °C were modest in strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, thermal stressing of other metabolic pathways may have reduced growth rates in these two strains. This possibility should be explored in future research efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Coral Reefs Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptome Survey of a Marine Food Fish: Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 382-400; doi:10.3390/jmse3020382
Received: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
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Abstract
The Asian seabass (or barramundi; Lates calcarifer) is a marine teleost and a popular food fish in Southeast Asia and Australia. To date, comprehensive genome and transcriptome sequence information has not been available for this species in public repositories. Here, we [...] Read more.
The Asian seabass (or barramundi; Lates calcarifer) is a marine teleost and a popular food fish in Southeast Asia and Australia. To date, comprehensive genome and transcriptome sequence information has not been available for this species in public repositories. Here, we report a comprehensive de novo transcriptome assembly of the Asian seabass. These data will be useful for the development of molecular tools for use in aquaculture of Asian seabass as well as a resource for genome annotation. The transcriptome was obtained from sequences generated from organs of multiple individuals using three different next-generation sequencing platforms (454-FLX Titanium, SOLiD 3+, and paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000). The assembled transcriptome contains >80% of the expected protein-coding loci, with 58% of these represented by a predicted full-length cDNA sequence when compared to the available Nile tilapia RefSeq dataset. Detailed descriptions of the various steps involved in sequencing and assembling a transcriptome are provided to serve as a helpful guide for transcriptome projects involving de novo assembly of short sequence reads for non-model teleosts or any species of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Breeding Technology and Its Application in Marine Aquaculture)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Effects of Vicicitus globosus (Class Dictyochophyceae) and Chattonella marina (Class Raphidophyceae) on Rotifers and Other Microalgae
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 401-411; doi:10.3390/jmse3020401
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
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Abstract
Cultures of Vicicitus globosus (previously Chattonella globosa) and Chattonella marina, established during the 2010 fish kill event in Mahanga Bay, Wellington Harbour, are confirmed to be cytotoxic. The aggregate potency of lipophilic cell extracts of each species were evaluated using [...] Read more.
Cultures of Vicicitus globosus (previously Chattonella globosa) and Chattonella marina, established during the 2010 fish kill event in Mahanga Bay, Wellington Harbour, are confirmed to be cytotoxic. The aggregate potency of lipophilic cell extracts of each species were evaluated using three species each of flagellates, dinoflagellates and diatoms, and a rotifer as test organisms. The cell extract of V. globosus destroyed cells of all nine microalgae in a matter of a few minutes to less than 15 min, while that of C. marina, destroyed all species over 10 to 30 min. The lipophilic extract of V. globosus caused partial disintegration of both theca wall and cytoplasm of cells of Alexandrium catenella in a matter of minutes. This effect, however, was not observed in cells of A. catenella exposed to that of C. marina. Tests conducted on rotifers showed similar fast-acting trends, with animals exposed to a cell extract of V. globosus died in a much shorter time (Lt50 = 80 min) than those exposed to that of C. marina (20 h). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Red Tide Research)
Open AccessArticle Genotype by Environment Interaction for Growth in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) in Four Farms of Norway
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 412-427; doi:10.3390/jmse3020412
Received: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
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Abstract
We studied genotype by environment interaction (G × E) for body weight (BW) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) from the National cod breeding program in Norway. Records of 13,811 fish in a nucleus farm (NUC) and two test farms (PE [...] Read more.
We studied genotype by environment interaction (G × E) for body weight (BW) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) from the National cod breeding program in Norway. Records of 13,811 fish in a nucleus farm (NUC) and two test farms (PENorth, PESouth) in year-class (YC) 2007, and for 9149 fish in NUC and one test farm in YC 2010 were available. Heterogeneity of variances and heritabilities ( ) were estimated using a univariate animal model with environmental effects common to full-sibs (full-model). Genetic correlations ( ) between farms were estimated using a multivariate full-model and a reduced-model (without ) for each YC. Heterogeneity of  was observed in both YC 2007 (0.10 to 0.16) and YC 2010 (0.08 to 0.26). The estimates of  between NUC and test farms were relatively high for both models (0.81 ± 0.19 to 0.96 ± 0.17) and (0.81 ± 0.08 to 0.86 ± 0.04), suggesting low re-ranking of genotypes. Strong re-ranking of genotypes between PESouth and PENorth may be less important because most cod producers are situated close to the breeding nucleus. In conclusion, G × E between NUC and test farms were low and at present there is no need for separate breeding programs for BW in cod. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Breeding Technology and Its Application in Marine Aquaculture)
Open AccessArticle Exploring Water Level Sensitivity for Metropolitan New York during Sandy (2012) Using Ensemble Storm Surge Simulations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 428-443; doi:10.3390/jmse3020428
Received: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
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Abstract
This paper describes storm surge simulations made for Sandy (2012) for the Metropolitan New York (NYC) area using the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model forced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The atmospheric forecast uncertainty was quantified using 11-members from an [...] Read more.
This paper describes storm surge simulations made for Sandy (2012) for the Metropolitan New York (NYC) area using the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model forced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The atmospheric forecast uncertainty was quantified using 11-members from an atmospheric Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) system. A control WRF member re-initialized every 24 h demonstrated the capability of the WRF-ADCIRC models to realistically simulate the 2.83 m surge and 4.40 m storm tide (surge + astronomical tide) above mean lower low water (MLLW) for NYC. Starting about four days before landfall, an ensemble of model runs based on the 11 “best” meteorological predictions illustrate how modest changes in the track (20–100 km) and winds (3–5 m s−1) of Sandy approaching the New Jersey coast and NYC can lead to relatively large (0.50–1.50 m) storm surge variations. The ensemble also illustrates the extreme importance of the timing of landfall relative to local high tide. The observed coastal flooding was not the worst case for this particular event. Had Sandy made landfall at differing times, locations and stages of the tide, peak water levels could have been up to 0.5 m higher than experienced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Hazards Related to Storm Surge)
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Open AccessArticle Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) as an Indicator of Bleaching Tolerance in Scleractinian Corals
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 444-465; doi:10.3390/jmse3020444
Received: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
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Abstract
Thermal tolerance tests on Acropora millepora, a common Indo-Pacific hard coral, have shown that adult corals can acquire increased thermal tolerance by shuffling existing type C to type D Symbiodinium zooxanthellae when subjected to increased seawater temperatures. We report here dimethylsulphoniopropionate [...] Read more.
Thermal tolerance tests on Acropora millepora, a common Indo-Pacific hard coral, have shown that adult corals can acquire increased thermal tolerance by shuffling existing type C to type D Symbiodinium zooxanthellae when subjected to increased seawater temperatures. We report here dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) concentrations in A. millepora and examine links between DMSP concentrations, zooxanthellae clade, and bleaching tolerance. DMSP analysis on native and transplanted corals from three locations in the Great Barrier Reef indicated that the lower thermal tolerance in type C zooxanthellae coincided with variable DMSP concentrations, whilst the more thermal tolerant type D zooxanthellae had more stable areal DMSP concentrations as seawater temperatures increased. Our results suggest this increased thermal tolerance in type D zooxanthellae may reflect the ability of these coral symbionts to conserve their antioxidant DMSP levels to relatively constant concentrations, enabling the coral to overcome the build-up of oxygen free radicals in the cytoplasm of A. millepora. A conceptual diagram illustrates how the antioxidants DMS (P) participate in the bleaching process by scavenging oxygen free radicals and form DMSO, thus moderating coral bleaching and increasing thermotolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Coral Reefs Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Mangrove Sediments of an Anthropogenically Impacted Estuary in Southern China
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 466-491; doi:10.3390/jmse3020466
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
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Abstract
Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach [...] Read more.
Mangroves serve as either sinks or sources for inorganic and organic nutrients and can mitigate anthropogenic nutrient pollution, control the production in adjacent systems, and prevent eutrophication. To better understand the nutrient dynamics in a subtropical mangrove, we employed a three-way approach in the Nanliu River Estuary, southern China: Pore water profiles and sediment incubations revealed benthic early diagenesis as well as sediment–water exchange of dissolved nutrients and oxygen, while tidal sampling of estuarine and mangrove water identified source and sink functions of the entire mangrove forest. Fluxes of oxygen during incubations were always directed into the sediment, indicating heterotrophy of the system. There was a net uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly caused by nitrate influx, while ammonium and nitrite showed variable flux direction. Despite high pore water concentrations, phosphate and silica showed net uptake. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon were generally low except for high efflux in the dark following a storm event. Due to the combination of small forest area and strong anthropogenic nutrient input, the net sink function for dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus provides no significant buffer against the eutrophication of coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogeochemical Cycles in Mangrove Forests)

Review

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Open AccessReview Epigenetics—Potential for Programming Fish for Aquaculture?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 175-192; doi:10.3390/jmse3020175
Received: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
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Abstract
Epigenetic marks affecting the expression of genes are triggered by environmental stimuli, can persist throughout life or across multiple generations and can affect an individuals phenotype. In recent years there has been a revival of interest about the possible role of epigenetics [...] Read more.
Epigenetic marks affecting the expression of genes are triggered by environmental stimuli, can persist throughout life or across multiple generations and can affect an individuals phenotype. In recent years there has been a revival of interest about the possible role of epigenetics in affecting complex or quantitative traits. This growing interest is partly driven by the increasing affordability of ultra-high throughput sequencing methods for studying the epigenome. In this review we focus on some of the possible applications of epigenetic knowledge to the improvement of aquaculture. DNA methylation, in which a methyl group is added to the C5 carbon residue of a cytosine by DNA methyltransferase, has been the most widely studied epigenetic mechanism to date, and methods used to obtain and analyse genome-wide DNA methylation data are outlined. The influence of epigenetic processes on the estimation of breeding values and accuracy of genomic selection for genetic improvement of aquatic species is explored. The possibility of tightly controlling nutritional stimuli found to affect epigenetic processes in order to tailor the development of fish for aquaculture is also discussed. Complex experiments will be required in order to gain a better understanding of the role of epigenetics in affecting quantitative traits in fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Breeding Technology and Its Application in Marine Aquaculture)
Open AccessReview Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(2), 329-355; doi:10.3390/jmse3020329
Received: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
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Abstract
At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation [...] Read more.
At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Breeding Technology and Its Application in Marine Aquaculture)

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