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Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 196-215; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020196
Article

Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1 Transactivator T-bet Enhance Antigen Specific DNA Vaccine-Induced Immunity

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Received: 27 November 2013; in revised form: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1452 KB, uploaded 25 March 2014]
Abstract: DNA vaccine-induced immunity can be enhanced by the co-delivery of synthetic gene-encoding molecular adjuvants. Many of these adjuvants have included cytokines, chemokines or co-stimulatory molecules that have been demonstrated to enhance vaccine-induced immunity by increasing the magnitude or type of immune responses and/or protective efficacy. In this way, through the use of adjuvants, immune responses can be highly customizable and functionally tailored for optimal efficacy against pathogen specific (i.e., infectious agent) or non-pathogen (i.e., cancer) antigens. In the novel study presented here, we examined the use of cellular transcription factors as molecular adjuvants. Specifically the co-delivery of (a) RelA, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription complex or (b) T-bet, a Th1-specific T box transcription factor, along with a prototypical DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 proteins was evaluated. As well, all of the vaccines and adjuvants were administered to mice using in vivo electroporation (EP), a technology demonstrated to dramatically increase plasmid DNA transfection and subsequent transgene expression with concomitant enhancement of vaccine induced immune responses. As such, this study demonstrated that co-delivery of either adjuvant resulted in enhanced T and B cell responses, specifically characterized by increased T cell numbers, IFN-γ production, as well as enhanced antibody responses. This study demonstrates the use of cellular transcription factors as adjuvants for enhancing DNA vaccine-induced immunity.
Keywords: DNA vaccine; transcription factors; adjuvant-enhanced immunity; T cell immunity; antibody responses DNA vaccine; transcription factors; adjuvant-enhanced immunity; T cell immunity; antibody responses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shedlock, D.J.; Tingey, C.; Mahadevan, L.; Hutnick, N.; Reuschel, E.L.; Kudchodkar, S.; Flingai, S.; Yan, J.; Kim, J.J.; Ugen, K.E.; Weiner, D.B.; Muthumani, K. Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1 Transactivator T-bet Enhance Antigen Specific DNA Vaccine-Induced Immunity. Vaccines 2014, 2, 196-215.

AMA Style

Shedlock DJ, Tingey C, Mahadevan L, Hutnick N, Reuschel EL, Kudchodkar S, Flingai S, Yan J, Kim JJ, Ugen KE, Weiner DB, Muthumani K. Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1 Transactivator T-bet Enhance Antigen Specific DNA Vaccine-Induced Immunity. Vaccines. 2014; 2(2):196-215.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shedlock, Devon J.; Tingey, Colleen; Mahadevan, Lavanya; Hutnick, Natalie; Reuschel, Emma L.; Kudchodkar, Sagar; Flingai, Seleeke; Yan, Jenny; Kim, Joseph J.; Ugen, Kenneth E.; Weiner, David B.; Muthumani, Kar. 2014. "Co-Administration of Molecular Adjuvants Expressing NF-Kappa B Subunit p65/RelA or Type-1 Transactivator T-bet Enhance Antigen Specific DNA Vaccine-Induced Immunity." Vaccines 2, no. 2: 196-215.

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