Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 216-227; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020216
Article

HSP70 Promoter-Driven Activation of Gene Expression for Immunotherapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near Infrared Light

1
, 2
, 2
, 2
 and 1,3,*
Received: 5 December 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [839 KB, uploaded 25 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Modulation of the cytokine milieu is one approach for vaccine development. However, therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, is limited in practice due to adverse systemic effects. Spatially-restricted gene expression circumvents this problem by enabling localized amplification. Intracellular co-delivery of gold nanorods (AuNR) and a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter-driven expression vector enables gene expression in response to near infrared (NIR) light. AuNRs absorb the light, convert it into heat and thereby stimulate photothermal expression of the cytokine. As proof-of-concept, human HeLa and murine B16 cancer cells were transfected with a HSP70-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) plasmid and polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated AuNRs. Exposure to either 42 °C heat-shock or NIR light induced significant expression of the reporter gene. In vivo NIR driven expression of the reporter gene was confirmed at 6 and 24 h in mice bearing B16 melanoma tumors using in vivo imaging and flow-cytometric analysis. Overall, we demonstrate a novel opportunity for site-directed, heat-inducible expression of a gene based upon the NIR-absorbing properties of AuNRs and a HSP70 promoter-driven expression vector.
Keywords: gold nanorod; HSP70 promoter; near infrared; immunotherapy; cancer gold nanorod; HSP70 promoter; near infrared; immunotherapy; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Andersson, H.A.; Kim, Y.-S.; O'Neill, B.E.; Shi, Z.-Z.; Serda, R.E. HSP70 Promoter-Driven Activation of Gene Expression for Immunotherapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near Infrared Light. Vaccines 2014, 2, 216-227.

AMA Style

Andersson HA, Kim Y-S, O'Neill BE, Shi Z-Z, Serda RE. HSP70 Promoter-Driven Activation of Gene Expression for Immunotherapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near Infrared Light. Vaccines. 2014; 2(2):216-227.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andersson, Helen A.; Kim, Yoo-Shin; O'Neill, Brian E.; Shi, Zheng-Zheng; Serda, Rita E. 2014. "HSP70 Promoter-Driven Activation of Gene Expression for Immunotherapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near Infrared Light." Vaccines 2, no. 2: 216-227.

Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert