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Insects, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Perennial Grass and Native Wildflowers: A Synergistic Approach to Habitat Management
Insects 2017, 8(4), 104; doi:10.3390/insects8040104
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture) and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation) on
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Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture) and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation) on wildflower bloom and visitation by arthropods in a biofeedstocks-wildflower habitat buffer design. Twenty habitat buffer plots were established containing a subplot of Napier grass (Pennisetum perpureum Schumach) for biofeedstock, three commercial wildflower mix subplots, and a control subplot containing spontaneous weeds. Arthropods and flowers were visually observed in quadrats throughout the season. At the end of the season we measured soil nutrients and harvested Napier biomass. We found irrespective of buffer location or irrigation, pollinators were observed more frequently early in the season and on experimental plots with wildflowers than on weeds in the control plots. Natural enemies showed a tendency for being more common on plots adjacent to a wooded border, and were also more commonly observed early in the season. Herbivore visits were infrequent and not significantly influenced by experimental treatments. Napier grass yields were high and typical of first-year yields reported regionally, and were not affected by location context or irrigation. Our results suggest habitat management designs integrating bioenergy crop and floral resources provide marketable biomass and habitat for beneficial arthropods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitat Management in Agroecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Insects 2017, 8(4), 105; doi:10.3390/insects8040105
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks
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This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Moxidectin on Bed Bug Feeding, Development, Fecundity, and Survivorship
Insects 2017, 8(4), 106; doi:10.3390/insects8040106
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we
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The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population) of moxidectin against bed bug male adults, female adults, and large nymphs were 52.7 (95% CI (confidence interval): 39.5–70.8), 29.3 (95% CI: 20.7–40.5), and 29.1 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.3–35.3), respectively. Moxidectin (≥ 25 ng/mL) reduced egg laying of bed bug females, but showed no significant effect on egg hatching. One time feeding on rabbit blood containing 20 and 40 ng/mL moxidectin showed no negative effects in bed bug feeding and blood meal ingestion, but significantly reduced digestion rates and nymph molting rates. Although moxidectin at concentrations of 20 and 40 ng/mL only caused moderate mortality in bed bugs, it significantly interrupted digestion, development, and oviposition of survived bed bugs for at least one week after feeding. Moxidectin is a promising supplement of the existing bed bug control materials if its use on humans can be approved in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida
Insects 2017, 8(4), 107; doi:10.3390/insects8040107
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that
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Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp.) were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots) to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots) did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs). The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Monitoring and Trapping in Agricultural Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Longitudinal Measurements of Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Susceptibility to Insecticides in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi: Associations with Insecticide Use and Insect Control Recommendations
Insects 2017, 8(4), 109; doi:10.3390/insects8040109
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Concentration-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin, and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 field populations
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Concentration-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin, and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 field populations were examined for susceptibility to acephate, 145 for susceptibility to imidacloprid, and 208 for susceptibility to thiamethoxam. Permethrin assays were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to measure levels of pyrethroid resistance in 44 field populations, and sulfoxaflor assays were conducted against 24 field populations in 2015. Resistance to acephate and permethrin is as high or higher than that previously reported, although some populations, especially those exposed to permethrin, appear to be susceptible. Variable assay responses were measured for populations exposed to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Average response metrics suggest that populations are generally susceptible to the neonicotinoids, but a few populations from cotton fields experiencing control problems exhibited elevated LC50s. Efforts to associate variability in LC50s with recorded use of insecticides and estimated cotton insect losses and control costs suggest that intensive use of insecticides over several decades may have elevated general detoxifying enzymes in L. lineolaris and some field populations may be exhibiting resistance to multiple classes of insecticide. These results suggest that efforts should be made to manage these pests more efficiently with a reduced use of insecticides and alternative controls. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Heartrate Reaction to Acute Stress in Horned Passalus Beetles (Odontotaenius disjunctus) is Negatively Affected by a Naturally-Occurring Nematode Parasite
Insects 2017, 8(4), 110; doi:10.3390/insects8040110
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
There are many events in the lives of insects where rapid, effective stress reactions are needed, including fighting conspecifics to defend territories, evading predators, and responding to wounds. A key element of the stress reaction is elevation of heartrate (HR), for enhancing distribution
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There are many events in the lives of insects where rapid, effective stress reactions are needed, including fighting conspecifics to defend territories, evading predators, and responding to wounds. A key element of the stress reaction is elevation of heartrate (HR), for enhancing distribution of blood (hemolymph) to body compartments. We conducted two experiments designed to improve understanding of the insect stress reaction and how it is influenced by parasitism in a common beetle species (Odontotaenius disjunctus). By non-destructively observing heartbeat frequency before, during and after applying a stressor (physical restraint) for 10 min, we sought to determine: (1) the exact timing of the cardiac stress reaction; (2) the magnitude of heartrate elevation during stress; and (3) if the physiological response is affected by a naturally-occurring nematode parasite, Chondronema passali. Restraint caused a dramatic increase in heartrate, though not immediately; maximum HR was reached after approximately 8 min. Average heartrate went from 65.5 beats/min to a maximum of 81.5 (24.5% increase) in adults raised in the lab (n = 19). Using wild-caught adults (n = 77), average heartrates went from 54.9 beats/min to 74.2 (35.5% increase). When restraint was removed, HR declined after ~5 min, and reached baseline 50 min later. The nematode parasite did not affect baseline heartrates in either experiment, but in one, it retarded the heartrate elevation during stress, and in the other, it reduced the overall magnitude of the elevation. While we acknowledge that our results are based on comparisons of beetles with naturally-occurring parasite infections, these results indicate this parasite causes a modest reduction in host cardiac output during acute stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards
Insects 2017, 8(4), 108; doi:10.3390/insects8040108
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest
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Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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