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Insects, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2011), Pages 1-61

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Relationships of Helicoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubilalis and Fusarium verticillioides on MON 810 Maize
Insects 2011, 2(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/insects2010001
Received: 20 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation
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MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary). From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed significant damage only at a single plot. Fusarium verticillioides infection appeared only in a small portion (~20–30%) of the insect damaged cobs. H. armigera and O. nubilalis larvae feeding on F. verticillioides mycelia can distribute its conidia with their fecal pellets. MON 810 maize showed 100% efficacy against O. nubilalis in the stem, but lower efficacy against O. nubilalis and H. armigera in maize ears. The ~Cry1Ab toxin content of maize silk, the entry site of H. armigera, was lower than that in the leaves/stem/husk leaves of MON 810. Fusarium-infected MON 810 cobs are rarely found and only after larval damage by O. nubilalis. H. armigera larvae could not tolerate well F. verticillioides infected food and attempted to move out from the infected cobs. For further feeding they re-entered the maize ears through the 8–12 husk leaves, but in the case of the MON 810 variety, they usually could not reach the kernels. Apical damage on cobs resulted in only a minor (about one-tenth of the cob) decrease in yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
Open AccessArticle A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves
Insects 2011, 2(1), 12-21; doi:10.3390/insects2010012
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may
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Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
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Open AccessArticle Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius
Insects 2011, 2(1), 22-35; doi:10.3390/insects2010022
Received: 16 December 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 3 March 2011 / Published: 7 March 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed
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The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs
Insects 2011, 2(1), 36-48; doi:10.3390/insects2010036
Received: 11 February 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 16 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United
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Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bed Bugs: An Emerging Pandemic)
Open AccessReview Chromosomal Speciation Revisited: Modes of Diversification in Australian Morabine Grasshoppers (Vandiemenella, viatica Species Group)
Insects 2011, 2(1), 49-61; doi:10.3390/insects2010049
Received: 16 February 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many
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Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many species have structural variation in chromosomes, has led to the theory that the rearrangements may play a direct role in promoting speciation. Australian morabine grasshoppers (genus Vandiemenella, viatica species group) are an excellent model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangement in speciation because they show extensive chromosomal variation, parapatric distribution patterns, and narrow hybrid zones at their boundaries. This species group stimulated development of one of the classic chromosomal speciation models, the stasipatric speciation model proposed by White in 1968. Our population genetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive non-monophyly of chromosomal races along with historical and on-going gene introgression between them. These findings suggest that geographical isolation leading to the fixation of chromosomal variants in different geographic regions, followed by secondary contact, resulted in the present day parapatric distributions of chromosomal races. The significance of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of the viatica species group can be explored by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between rearranged and co-linear parts of the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)

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