Special Issue "Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects"

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A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Béla Darvas (Website)

Central Environmental and Food Science Research Institute, H-1022 Budapest, Herman O. u. 15., Hungary
Fax: +36 13918655
Interests: applied dipterology; insect endocrinology; ecdysteroids; juvenile hormones; pest control; effects of bioactive compounds; secondary effects of insecticides; ecotoxicology; genotoxicities of insecticides; environmental hormonal disruptors; insecticide resistance; secondary effects of genetically modified plants; Bt-plants; mode of action of Cry-toxins
Guest Editor
Dr. Andreas Lang

Institut für Umweltgeowissenschaften, Departement Umweltwissenschaften, Universität Basel, Switzerland

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test
Insects 2011, 2(3), 400-411; doi:10.3390/insects2030400
Received: 2 July 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers [...] Read more.
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes and trees can be used as a supplementary tool if necessary or desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Consumption of Bt-maize (MON 810) on the Collembolan Folsomia candida, Over Multiple Generations: A Laboratory Study
Insects 2011, 2(2), 243-252; doi:10.3390/insects2020243
Received: 6 April 2011 / Revised: 7 May 2011 / Accepted: 19 May 2011 / Published: 23 May 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effect of long-term feeding on Bt-maize by collembolans in the laboratory is virtually unestablished. That is why the aim of the present study was to test whether the reproduction, fecal pellet production or food preference of the collembolan F. candida is [...] Read more.
The effect of long-term feeding on Bt-maize by collembolans in the laboratory is virtually unestablished. That is why the aim of the present study was to test whether the reproduction, fecal pellet production or food preference of the collembolan F. candida is affected when fed on Bt-maize for several consecutive generations. The collembolans were fed with Bt-maize for 0, 6, 16 and 22 months and the number of eggs and fecal pellets were determined. The experiment was repeated seven months later with the same populations. Food preference tests were additionally performed. Significant differences were found in food consumption, egg production and food preference between populations in some cases, but no time-response effect was observed. In conclusion, several generations feeding of F. candida on Cry1Ab toxin containing Bt-maize seems not to be harmful to this collembolan species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
Open AccessArticle A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves
Insects 2011, 2(1), 12-21; doi:10.3390/insects2010012
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae [...] Read more.
Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO). NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software), which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica) growing adjacent to maize fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Relationships of Helicoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubilalis and Fusarium verticillioides on MON 810 Maize
Insects 2011, 2(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/insects2010001
Received: 20 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear [...] Read more.
MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary). From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed significant damage only at a single plot. Fusarium verticillioides infection appeared only in a small portion (~20–30%) of the insect damaged cobs. H. armigera and O. nubilalis larvae feeding on F. verticillioides mycelia can distribute its conidia with their fecal pellets. MON 810 maize showed 100% efficacy against O. nubilalis in the stem, but lower efficacy against O. nubilalis and H. armigera in maize ears. The ~Cry1Ab toxin content of maize silk, the entry site of H. armigera, was lower than that in the leaves/stem/husk leaves of MON 810. Fusarium-infected MON 810 cobs are rarely found and only after larval damage by O. nubilalis. H. armigera larvae could not tolerate well F. verticillioides infected food and attempted to move out from the infected cobs. For further feeding they re-entered the maize ears through the 8–12 husk leaves, but in the case of the MON 810 variety, they usually could not reach the kernels. Apical damage on cobs resulted in only a minor (about one-tenth of the cob) decrease in yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects)

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