Next Article in Journal
Spatial Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Groundwater beneath Two Large On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Natural and Applied Tracers to Guide Targeted Remediation Efforts in an Acid Mine Drainage System, Colorado Rockies, USA
Previous Article in Journal
A Hydrograph-Based Sediment Availability Assessment: Implications for Mississippi River Sediment Diversion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Isotopes as Tracers of Water Origin in and Near a Regional Carbonate Aquifer: The Southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2014, 6(3), 584-601; doi:10.3390/w6030584

Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches

1
Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig 04318, Germany
2
Institute of Geosciences, University Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany
3
German Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz 56068, Germany
4
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)–Environment Laboratories, 98000 Monaco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tracers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1191 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the ocean is of general interest because it acts as vehicle for the transport of dissolved contaminants and/or nutrients into the coastal sea and because it may be accompanied by the loss of significant volumes of freshwater. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, environmental tracers are required for SGD investigation. The water parameters of electrical conductivity and temperature, the naturally occurring radionuclides of radon and radium as well as the stable water isotopes 18O and 2H have proven in previous studies their general suitability for the detection and quantification of SGD. However, individual hydrogeological settings require a site-specific application of this “tool box”. This study evaluates and compares the applicability of the abovementioned tracers for investigating SGD from a distinct submarine source in a karst environment at Cabbé, southern France. The specific advantages and disadvantages of each individual parameter under the given hydrogeological conditions are discussed. Radon appeared to be the most suitable environmental tracer in the site specific context. The water temperature was less reliable due to the little temperature difference between seawater and groundwater and since the diurnal variation of the air temperature masks potential SGD signals. Radium isotopes are less applicable in the studied region due to the lack of a well-developed subterranean estuary. The stable water isotopes showed results consistent with the salinity and radon data; however, the significantly higher effort required for stable isotope analyses is disadvantageous. A multi-temporal thermal remote sensing approach proved to be a powerful tool for initial SGD surveying. View Full-Text
Keywords: submarine groundwater discharge; SGD; environmental tracers; radon; radium; stable isotopes; multi-temporal thermal remote sensing submarine groundwater discharge; SGD; environmental tracers; radon; radium; stable isotopes; multi-temporal thermal remote sensing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schubert, M.; Scholten, J.; Schmidt, A.; Comanducci, J.F.; Pham, M.K.; Mallast, U.; Knoeller, K. Submarine Groundwater Discharge at a Single Spot Location: Evaluation of Different Detection Approaches. Water 2014, 6, 584-601.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top