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Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT
Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
Sub-Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2010; in revised form: 24 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Abstract: This research describes the feasibility of applying a UASB reactor for the treatment of concentrated black (toilet) water at 25 °C. On average 78% of the influent load of COD at an HRT of 8.7 days was removed. Produced methane can be converted to 56 MJ/p/y as electricity and 84 MJ/p/y as heat by combined heat and power (CHP). Minimum reactor volume at full scale was calculated to be 63L per person (for black water containing 16 gCOD/L produced at 5 L/p/d) and this is more than two times smaller than other type of reactors for anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water.
Keywords: black water; anaerobic treatment; UASB reactor; sanitation; separation at source
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MDPI and ACS Style
De Graaff, M.S.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N. Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT. Water 2010, 2, 101-119.
De Graaff MS, Temmink H, Zeeman G, Buisman CJN. Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT. Water. 2010; 2(1):101-119.
De Graaff, Marthe S.; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J. N. 2010. "Anaerobic Treatment of Concentrated Black Water in a UASB Reactor at a Short HRT." Water 2, no. 1: 101-119.