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Catalysts, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Catalysts Best Paper Award 2016
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/catal6030044
Received: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
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Abstract
Catalysts has established a new award, to be given annually, for the best original and review articles published in Catalysts.[...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Production of Resveratrol by Piceid Deglycosylation Using Cellulase
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 32; doi:10.3390/catal6030032
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
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Abstract
Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenolic compound widely used in medicine, food, and cosmetic products. The glycoside form of resveratrol, piceid, is also present in several plant materials but is less bioavailable. In this study, enzymatic transformation of piceid into resveratrol using inexpensive cellulase
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Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenolic compound widely used in medicine, food, and cosmetic products. The glycoside form of resveratrol, piceid, is also present in several plant materials but is less bioavailable. In this study, enzymatic transformation of piceid into resveratrol using inexpensive cellulase was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of reaction parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme amount and pH. The optimal conditions for biotransformation of piceid to resveratrol are: a reaction temperature of 50 °C, reaction time of 4.75 h, enzyme amount of 2.5 fungal β-glucanase (FBG) units and pH of 4.3. In addition, the extracts from Polygonum cuspidatum root contained high amounts of piceid were treated with cellulase in order to deglycosylation that increased resveratrol yield. After treatment, the resveratrol yield significantly increased from 2.72 to 9.49 mg/g, while the piceid contents decreased from 8.60 to 0 mg/g. The result provides an efficient method to convert piceid in the extracts of P. cuspidatum root into resveratrol by cellulase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle Methanol Reforming over Cobalt Catalysts Prepared from Fumarate Precursors: TPD Investigation
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 33; doi:10.3390/catal6030033
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
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Abstract
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) was employed to investigate adsorption characteristics of CH3OH, H2O, H2, CO2 and CO on cobalt-manganese oxide catalysts prepared through mixed Co-Mn fumarate precursors either by pyrolysis or oxidation and oxidation/reduction pretreatment. Pyrolysis temperature
[...] Read more.
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) was employed to investigate adsorption characteristics of CH3OH, H2O, H2, CO2 and CO on cobalt-manganese oxide catalysts prepared through mixed Co-Mn fumarate precursors either by pyrolysis or oxidation and oxidation/reduction pretreatment. Pyrolysis temperature and Co/Mn ratio were the variable synthesis parameters. Adsorption of methanol, water and CO2 was carried out at room temperature. Adsorption of H2 and H2O was carried out at 25 and 300 °C. Adsorption of CO was carried out at 25 and 150 °C. The goal of the work was to gain insight on the observed differences in the performance of the aforementioned catalysts in methanol steam reforming. TPD results indicated that activity differences are mostly related to variation in the number density of active sites, which are able to adsorb and decompose methanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Charge Transfer Mechanism in Titanium-Doped Microporous Silica for Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Applications
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 34; doi:10.3390/catal6030034
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar energy conversion into chemical form is possible using artificial means. One example of a highly-efficient fuel is solar energy used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting remains an open challenge for researchers across the globe. Despite significant progress,
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Solar energy conversion into chemical form is possible using artificial means. One example of a highly-efficient fuel is solar energy used to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting remains an open challenge for researchers across the globe. Despite significant progress, several aspects of the reaction, including the charge transfer mechanism, are not fully clear. Density functional theory combined with density matrix equations of motion were used to identify and characterize the charge transfer mechanism involved in the dissociation of water. A simulated porous silica substrate, using periodic boundary conditions, with Ti4+ ions embedded on the inner pore wall was found to contain electron and hole trap states that could facilitate a chemical reaction. A trap state was located within the silica substrate that lengthened relaxation time, which may favor a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction would have to occur within the window of photoexcitation; therefore, the existence of a trapping state may encourage a chemical reaction. This provides evidence that the silica substrate plays an integral part in the electron/hole dynamics of the system, leading to the conclusion that both components (photoactive materials and support) of heterogeneous catalytic systems are important in optimization of catalytic efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Metagenome-Derived β-Glucosidase and Its Application in Conversion of Polydatin to Resveratrol
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 35; doi:10.3390/catal6030035
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the beneficial pharmacological properties of resveratrol, there is increasingly interest in enzymatic conversion of polydatin to resveratrol. The metagenomic technique provides an effective strategy for mining novel polydatin-hydrolysis enzymes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a metagenomic library of mangrove soil was
[...] Read more.
For the beneficial pharmacological properties of resveratrol, there is increasingly interest in enzymatic conversion of polydatin to resveratrol. The metagenomic technique provides an effective strategy for mining novel polydatin-hydrolysis enzymes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a metagenomic library of mangrove soil was constructed and a novel β-glucosidase gene MlBgl was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequences of MlBgl showed the highest identity of 64% with predicted β-glucosidase in the GenBank database. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) assay demonstrated the purified recombinant β-glucosidase r-MlBgl with a molecular weight approximately of 71 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of purified recombinant r-MlBgl were 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. r-MlBgl could hydrolyze polydatin effectively. The kcat and kcat/Km values for polydatin were 989 s−1 and 1476 mM−1·s−1, respectively. These properties suggest that -r-MlBgl has potential application in the enzymatic conversion of polydatin to resveratrol for further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Catalysis)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study of N2O Formation over Rh- and Pt-Based LNT Catalysts
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 36; doi:10.3390/catal6030036
Received: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, mechanistic aspects involved in the formation of N2O over Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Rh-BaO/Al2O3 model NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalysts are discussed. The reactivity of both gas-phase NO and stored nitrates was investigated by
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In this paper, mechanistic aspects involved in the formation of N2O over Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Rh-BaO/Al2O3 model NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalysts are discussed. The reactivity of both gas-phase NO and stored nitrates was investigated by using H2 and NH3 as reductants. It was found that N2O formation involves the presence of gas-phase NO, since no N2O is observed upon the reduction of nitrates stored over both Pt- and Rh-BaO/Al2O3 catalyst samples. In particular, N2O formation involves the coupling of undissociated NO molecules with N-adspecies formed upon NO dissociation onto reduced Platinum-Group-Metal (PGM) sites. Accordingly, N2O formation is observed at low temperatures, when PGM sites start to be reduced, and disappears at high temperatures where PGM sites are fully reduced and complete NO dissociation takes place. Besides, N2O formation is observed at lower temperatures with H2 than with NH3 in view of the higher reactivity of hydrogen in the reduction of the PGM sites and onto Pt-containing catalyst due to the higher reducibility of Pt vs. Rh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Gold-Iron Oxide Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Effect of Support Structure
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 37; doi:10.3390/catal6030037
Received: 26 November 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
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Abstract
Gold-iron oxide (Au/FeOx) is one of the highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, and is also a typical system for the study of the chemistry of gold catalysis. In this work, two different types of iron oxide supports, i.e., hydroxylated
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Gold-iron oxide (Au/FeOx) is one of the highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, and is also a typical system for the study of the chemistry of gold catalysis. In this work, two different types of iron oxide supports, i.e., hydroxylated (Fe_OH) and dehydrated iron oxide (Fe_O), have been used for the deposition of gold via a deposition-precipitation (DP) method. The structure of iron oxide has been tuned by either selecting precipitated pH of 6.7–11.2 for Fe_OH or changing calcination temperature of from 200 to 600 °C for Fe_O. Then, 1 wt. % Au catalysts on these iron oxide supports were measured for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. Both fresh and used samples have been characterized by multiple techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2-TPR). It has been demonstrated that the surface properties of the iron oxide support, as well as the metal-support interaction, plays crucial roles on the performance of Au/FeOx catalysts in CO oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Heterogeneous Asymmetric Oxidation Catalysis Using Hemophore HasApf. Application in the Chemoenzymatic Deracemization of sec-Alcohols with Sodium Borohydride
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 38; doi:10.3390/catal6030038
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
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Abstract
This study aims to demonstrate the coordination of oxygen regarding the hemophore HasApf expressed by Escherichia coli cells, which appears to create an unlikely oxygen-activating system in HasA due to the already-coordinated iron. In the asymmetric oxidation of rac-1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanol (rac-1)
[...] Read more.
This study aims to demonstrate the coordination of oxygen regarding the hemophore HasApf expressed by Escherichia coli cells, which appears to create an unlikely oxygen-activating system in HasA due to the already-coordinated iron. In the asymmetric oxidation of rac-1-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)ethanol (rac-1) using dissolved oxygen, the signals at g-values of 2.8, 2.22, and 1.72 in the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra disappeared in conjunction with the promotion of oxoferric (FeIII−O–O) species in the distal site. These results suggest that the iron of porphyrin/Fe may be oxidized in water, leading to exhibition of greater asymmetric oxidation activity in the promotion of oxoferryl (FeIV=O) species. A ketone (~50% chemical yield) produced from (R)-(−)-sec-alcohol can be desymmetrized by NaBH4 in aqueous medium at 40 °C (>99% enantiomer excess, ee, >90% chemical yield) in the absence of NAD(P). Therefore, HasA can be regenerated via successive asymmetric catalytic events through an incorporated iron electron-transfer system in the presence of oxygen: FeII + O2 → FeIII−O–O → FeIV=O (oxidizing rac-1) → FeII + H2O. This process is similar to a Fenton reaction. The use of a HasA-catalytic system with an incorporated redox cofactor for asymmetric oxidation overcomes the apparent difficulties in working with pure dehydrogenase enzyme/redox cofactor systems for biotransformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Catalysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Hydrogen Production by Ethanol Steam Reforming (ESR) over CeO2 Supported Transition Metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) Catalysts: Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationship
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 39; doi:10.3390/catal6030039
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (4864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to investigate steam reforming of ethanol with regard to H2 production over transition metal catalysts supported on CeO2. Various parameters concerning the effect of temperature (400–800 °C), steam-to-carbon (S/C) feed ratio (0.5, 1.5,
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to investigate steam reforming of ethanol with regard to H2 production over transition metal catalysts supported on CeO2. Various parameters concerning the effect of temperature (400–800 °C), steam-to-carbon (S/C) feed ratio (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6), metal entity (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and metal loading (15–30 wt.%) on the catalytic performance, were thoroughly studied. The optimal performance was obtained for the 20 wt.% Co/CeO2 catalyst, achieving a H2 yield of up to 66% at 400 °C. In addition, the Co/CeO2 catalyst demonstrated excellent stability performance in the whole examined temperature range of 400–800 °C. In contrast, a notable stability degradation, especially at low temperatures, was observed for Ni-, Cu-, and Fe-based catalysts, ascribed mainly to carbon deposition. An extensive characterization study, involving N2 adsorption-desorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Temperature Programmed Reduction (H2-TPR) was undertaken to gain insight into the structure-activity correlation. The excellent reforming performance of Co/CeO2 catalysts could be attributed to their intrinsic reactivity towards ethanol reforming in combination to their high surface oxygen concentration, which hinders the deposition of carbonaceous species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Catalysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Ce and Co Addition to Fe/Al2O3 for Catalytic Methane Decomposition
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/catal6030040
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
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Abstract
Catalytic methane decomposition is studied in a fixed bed reactor. Two sets of bimetallic catalysts are employed, namely: 30%Fe-X%Ce/Al2O3 and 30%Fe-X%Co/Al2O3, and compared with monometallic 30%Fe/Al2O3 catalyst. The effect
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Catalytic methane decomposition is studied in a fixed bed reactor. Two sets of bimetallic catalysts are employed, namely: 30%Fe-X%Ce/Al2O3 and 30%Fe-X%Co/Al2O3, and compared with monometallic 30%Fe/Al2O3 catalyst. The effect of promoting Fe with Ce and Co and reduction temperature are investigated. The results reveal that Ce addition has shown a negative impact on H2 yield while a positive effect on H2 yield and catalyst stability are observed with Co addition. In terms of number of moles of produced hydrogen per active sites, Fe/Al2O3 has shown a higher number of moles of hydrogen compared to bimetallic catalysts. The catalyst reduced at 500 °C exhibits better activity as compared to the catalyst reduced at 950 °C. Carbon nano-tubes are deposited on the catalyst within the range of 14–73 nm diameter. Two types of carbon nanotubes are detected: Cα and Cγ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vanadium Oxide Supported on MSU-1 as a Highly Active Catalyst for Dehydrogenation of Isobutane with CO2
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 41; doi:10.3390/catal6030041
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
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Abstract
Vanadium oxide supported on MSU-1, with VOx loading ranging from 2.5 to 17.5 wt. %, was developed as a highly active catalyst in dehydrogenation of isobutane with CO2. The obtained catalysts of VOx/MSU-1 were characterized by X-ray diffraction
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Vanadium oxide supported on MSU-1, with VOx loading ranging from 2.5 to 17.5 wt. %, was developed as a highly active catalyst in dehydrogenation of isobutane with CO2. The obtained catalysts of VOx/MSU-1 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, and H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) methods and the results showed that the large surface area of MSU-1 was favorable for the dispersion of VOx species and the optimal loading of VOx was 12.0 wt. %. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of VOx/MSU-1 was investigated, and VOx/MSU-1 with 12.0 wt. % VOx content was found to be the best one, with the conversion of isobutane (58.8%) and the selectivity of isobutene (78.5%) under the optimal reaction conditions. In contrast with the reaction in the absence of CO2, the presence of CO2 in the reaction stream could obviously enhance the isobutane dehydrogenation, which raised the conversion of reaction and the stability of VOx/MSU-1. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Effect of Porphyrin Molecular Structure on Water Splitting Activity of a KTaO3 Photocatalyst
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/catal6030042
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the ideal methods for solving the global energy crisis and its associated environmental problems. In this study, the effect of altering the molecular structure of porphyrins was investigated to improve the water splitting activity of Zr-doped KTaO
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Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the ideal methods for solving the global energy crisis and its associated environmental problems. In this study, the effect of altering the molecular structure of porphyrins was investigated to improve the water splitting activity of Zr-doped KTaO3 (KTa(Zr)O3) modified with porphyrin dyes. UV-vis spectra indicated that porphyrins with long alkoxy chains tended to form well-developed H-aggregates on the KTa(Zr)O3 surface. The photocatalytic activity of Pt-loaded KTa(Zr)O3 was improved by using porphyrins with longer alkoxy chains because of the improvement in the charge migration between porphyrin dye molecules. While the charge transfer between the inorganic semiconductor and porphyrin dye interface is important, it was found that the formation of H-aggregation was more effective in improving the water splitting activity of the porphyrin-modified photocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Water Splitting-1)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers over CNT-Supported Rhenium Catalyst
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/catal6030043
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract
Due to its excellent conductivity, good thermal stability and large specific surface area, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) were selected as support to prepare a Re-based catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME) direct oxidation to polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (DMMx). The catalyst performance was tested
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Due to its excellent conductivity, good thermal stability and large specific surface area, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) were selected as support to prepare a Re-based catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME) direct oxidation to polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (DMMx). The catalyst performance was tested in a continuous flow type fixed-bed reactor. H3PW12O40 (PW12) was used to modify Re/CNTs to improve its activity and selectivity. The effects of PW12 content, reaction temperature, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and reaction time on DME oxidation to DMMx were investigated. The results showed that modification of CNT-supported Re with 30% PW12 significantly increased the selectivity of DMM and DMM2 up to 59.0% from 6.6% with a DME conversion of 8.9%; besides that, there was no COx production observed in the reaction under the optimum conditions of 513 K and 1800 h−1. The techniques of XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the structure, surface properties and morphology of the catalysts. The optimum amount of weak acid sites and redox sites promotes the synthesis of DMM and DMM2 from DME direct oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts for Selective Oxidation)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature Catalytic Performance of Ni-Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts for Gasoline Reforming to Produce Hydrogen Applied in Spark Ignition Engines
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/catal6030045
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract
The performance of Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts for steam reforming (SR) of gasoline to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture applied in a spark ignition (SI) engine was investigated at relatively low temperature. The structural and morphological features and catalysis activity were observed
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The performance of Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts for steam reforming (SR) of gasoline to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture applied in a spark ignition (SI) engine was investigated at relatively low temperature. The structural and morphological features and catalysis activity were observed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results showed that the addition of copper improved the dispersion of nickel and therefore facilitated the reduction of Ni at low temperature. The highest hydrogen selectivity of 70.6% is observed over the Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts at a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. With Cu promotion, a gasoline conversion of 42.6% can be achieved at 550 °C, while with both Mo and Ce promotion, the gasoline conversions were 31.7% and 28.3%, respectively, higher than with the conventional Ni catalyst. On the other hand, initial durability testing showed that the conversion of gasoline over Ni-Cu/Al2O3 catalysts slightly decreased after 30 h reaction time. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mechanistic Investigation of the Reduction of NOx over Pt- and Rh-Based LNT Catalysts
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 46; doi:10.3390/catal6030046
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
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Abstract
The influence of the noble metals (Pt vs. Rh) on the NOx storage reduction performances of lean NOx trap catalysts is here investigated by transient micro-reactor flow experiments. The study indicates a different behavior during the storage in that the Rh-based
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The influence of the noble metals (Pt vs. Rh) on the NOx storage reduction performances of lean NOx trap catalysts is here investigated by transient micro-reactor flow experiments. The study indicates a different behavior during the storage in that the Rh-based catalyst showed higher storage capacity at high temperature as compared to the Pt-containing sample, while the opposite is seen at low temperatures. It is suggested that the higher storage capacity of the Rh-containing sample at high temperature is related to the higher dispersion of Rh as compared to Pt, while the lower storage capacity of Rh-Ba/Al2O3 at low temperature is related to its poor oxidizing properties. The noble metals also affect the catalyst behavior upon reduction of the stored NOx, by decreasing the threshold temperature for the reduction of the stored NOx. The Pt-based catalyst promotes the reduction of the adsorbed NOx at lower temperatures if compared to the Rh-containing sample, due to its superior reducibility. However, Rh-based material shows higher reactivity in the NH3 decomposition significantly enhancing N2 selectivity. Moreover, formation of small amounts of N2O is observed on both Pt- and Rh-based catalyst samples only during the reduction of highly reactive NOx stored at 150 °C, where NOx is likely in the form of nitrites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive Emission Control Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Homo-Polymerization of 1-Hexene Catalysed by O^N^N (Salicylaldimine)Iron(III) Pre-Catalysts to Branched Poly(1-hexene)
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 47; doi:10.3390/catal6030047
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new iron(III) 1-hexene polymerisation catalysts were prepared from the reactions of 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylimino)methylphenol (L1), or 4-tert-butyl-6-(2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylimino)methylphenol (L2) or 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-[(2-pyridin-2-yl-ethylimino)-methyl-phenol (L3) with anhydrous iron(II) halides to form [FeCl2(L1)] (1), [FeBr2(L1)] (2), [FeI2(L1)]
[...] Read more.
Five new iron(III) 1-hexene polymerisation catalysts were prepared from the reactions of 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylimino)methylphenol (L1), or 4-tert-butyl-6-(2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylimino)methylphenol (L2) or 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-[(2-pyridin-2-yl-ethylimino)-methyl-phenol (L3) with anhydrous iron(II) halides to form [FeCl2(L1)] (1), [FeBr2(L1)] (2), [FeI2(L1)] (3), [FeBr2(L2)] (4) and [FeCl2(L3)] (5). All the iron(III) complexes 1–5 were activated with EtAlCl2 to produce active catalysts for the polymerisation of 1-hexene to low molecular weight poly(1-hexene) (Mn = 1021–1084 Da) and very narrow polydispersity indices (1.19–1.24). 1H and 13C{1H} NMR analysis showed the polymers are branched with methyl, butyl and longer chain branches. The longer chain branches are dominant indicating that 2,1-insertion of monomer is favoured over 1,2-insertion in the polymerisation reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Catalysis for Precise Olefin Polymerization and ROP 2015)
Open AccessArticle Formic Acid Modified Co3O4-CeO2 Catalysts for CO Oxidation
Catalysts 2016, 6(3), 48; doi:10.3390/catal6030048
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract
A formic acid modified catalyst, Co3O4-CeO2, was prepared via facile urea-hydrothermal method and applied in CO oxidation. The Co3O4-CeO2-0.5 catalyst, treated by formic acid at 0.5 mol/L, performed better in CO
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A formic acid modified catalyst, Co3O4-CeO2, was prepared via facile urea-hydrothermal method and applied in CO oxidation. The Co3O4-CeO2-0.5 catalyst, treated by formic acid at 0.5 mol/L, performed better in CO oxidation with T50 obtained at 69.5 °C and T100 obtained at 150 °C, respectively. The characterization results indicate that after treating with formic acid, there is a more porous structure within the Co3O4-CeO2 catalyst; meanwhile, despite of the slightly decreased content of Co, there are more adsorption sites exposed by acid treatment, as suggested by CO-TPD and H2-TPD, which explains the improvement of catalytic performance. Full article
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