Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor pathway, regulated by a complex interplay of growth factors, cognate receptors, and binding proteins, is critically important for many of the hallmarks of cancer such as oncogenesis, cell division, growth, and antineoplastic resistance. Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. Though a small subset of patients enrolled within phase I or II clinical trials revealed dramatic clinical response to IGF-1R targeted therapies (most using monoclonal antibodies to IGF-1R), in toto, the anticancer effect has been underwhelming and unsustained, as even those with marked clinical responses seem to rapidly acquire resistance to IGF-1R targeted agents when used alone through yet to be identified mechanisms. As the IGF-1R receptor is just one of many that converge upon common intracellular signaling cascades, it is likely that effective IGF-1R targeting must occur in parallel with blockade of redundant signaling paths. Herein, we present the rationale for dual targeting of IGF-1R and other signaling molecules as an effective strategy to combat acquired drug resistance by carcinomas and sarcomas.
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Ludwig, J.A.; Lamhamedi-Cherradi, S.-E.; Lee, H.-Y.; Naing, A.; Benjamin, R. Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance. Cancers 2011, 3, 3029-3054.
Ludwig JA, Lamhamedi-Cherradi S-E, Lee H-Y, Naing A, Benjamin R. Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance. Cancers. 2011; 3(3):3029-3054.
Ludwig, Joseph A.; Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Lee, Ho-Young; Naing, Aung; Benjamin, Robert. 2011. "Dual Targeting of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Collateral Pathways in Cancer: Combating Drug Resistance." Cancers 3, no. 3: 3029-3054.