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Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma
Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641, Japan
Department of Neurosurgery, The First Clinical College of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin 150001, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2011; in revised form: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; few treatments are available. Median survival rates range from 12–15 months. The biological characteristics of this tumor are exemplified by prominent proliferation, active invasiveness, and rich angiogenesis. This is mainly due to highly deregulated signaling pathways in the tumor. Studies of these signaling pathways have greatly increased our understanding of the biology and clinical behavior of GBM. An integrated view of signal transduction will provide a more useful approach in designing novel therapies for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GBM signaling pathways with a focus on potential molecular targets for anti-signaling molecular therapies.
Keywords: glioblastoma; signaling; proliferation; invasion; angiogenesis; molecular target
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Nakada, M.; Kita, D.; Watanabe, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Teng, L.; Pyko, I.V.; Hamada, J.-I. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma. Cancers 2011, 3, 3242-3278.
Nakada M, Kita D, Watanabe T, Hayashi Y, Teng L, Pyko IV, Hamada J-I. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma. Cancers. 2011; 3(3):3242-3278.
Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Teng, Lei; Pyko, Ilya V.; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro. 2011. "Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Glioma." Cancers 3, no. 3: 3242-3278.