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Micromachines, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2011), Pages 319-368

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Open AccessArticle Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation
Micromachines 2011, 2(3), 319-343; doi:10.3390/mi2030319
Received: 11 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (3297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and
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Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity), purity (selectivity), and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC) devices and provide future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices)
Open AccessArticle An Electromagnetically-Actuated All-PDMS Valveless Micropump for Drug Delivery
Micromachines 2011, 2(3), 345-355; doi:10.3390/mi2030345
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the fabrication process of a single-chamber planar valveless micropump driven by an external electromagnetic actuator. This micropump features a pair of micro diffuser and nozzle elements used to rectify the fluid flow, and an elastic magnetic membrane used to regulate the
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This paper presents the fabrication process of a single-chamber planar valveless micropump driven by an external electromagnetic actuator. This micropump features a pair of micro diffuser and nozzle elements used to rectify the fluid flow, and an elastic magnetic membrane used to regulate the pressure in the enclosed fluid chamber. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used as the main construction material of this proposed micropump, including the structural substrate and the planar actuation membrane embedded with a thin micro magnet. Both the Finite Element Method and experimental analysis are used to assess the PDMS-membrane actuation under the applied electromagnetic forces and characterize the pump performance at variable working conditions. The resonant frequency of this micropump is identified experimentally and de-ionized (DI) water is loaded to account for the coupling effects of the working fluid. The experimental data was used to demonstrate the reliability of flow rates and how it can be controlled by consistently adjusting the driving frequencies and currents. The proposed micropump is capable of delivering a maximum flow rate of 319.6 μL/min and a maximum hydrostatic backpressure of 950 Pa (9.5 cm H2O). The planar design feature of the pump allows for potential integration of the pump with other PDMS-based microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices)
Open AccessArticle Liquid Encapsulation in Parylene Microstructures Using Integrated Annular-Plate Stiction Valves
Micromachines 2011, 2(3), 356-368; doi:10.3390/mi2030356
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 28 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 8 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the design, fabrication and characterization of micromachined Parylene structures for self-sealing liquid encapsulation applications. Automatic sealing is enabled through the use of an integrated annular-plate stiction valve which greatly reduces device footprint over in-plane configurations. We achieve automatic wafer-level liquid entrapment
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We report the design, fabrication and characterization of micromachined Parylene structures for self-sealing liquid encapsulation applications. Automatic sealing is enabled through the use of an integrated annular-plate stiction valve which greatly reduces device footprint over in-plane configurations. We achieve automatic wafer-level liquid entrapment without using adhesives or processing at elevated pressures or temperatures. The ability to track changes to the internal liquid volume through the use of electrochemical impedance measurements is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer MEMS)

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Sejnoha, M. et al. Mori-Tanaka Based Estimates of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Various Engineering Materials. Micromachines 2011, 2, 129–149
Micromachines 2011, 2(3), 344; doi:10.3390/mi2030344
Received: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We have discovered a mistake in our original derivation related to the definition of the apparent conductivity due to orientation averaging. [...] Full article

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