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Toxins 2010, 2(4), 494-516; doi:10.3390/toxins2040494

Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee

1
Laboratory of Zoophysiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Biology, Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2010 / Revised: 22 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Adult females of Nasonia vitripennis inject a venomous mixture into its host flies prior to oviposition. Recently, the entire genome of this ectoparasitoid wasp was sequenced, enabling the identification of 79 venom proteins. The next challenge will be to unravel their specific functions, but based on homolog studies, some predictions already can be made. Parasitization has an enormous impact on hosts physiology of which five major effects are discussed in this review: the impact on immune responses, induction of developmental arrest, increases in lipid levels, apoptosis and nutrient releases. The value of deciphering this venom is also discussed.
Keywords: Nasonia; venom; immunity; phenoloxidase; coagulation; development; lipid; apoptosis; nutrient Nasonia; venom; immunity; phenoloxidase; coagulation; development; lipid; apoptosis; nutrient
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Danneels, E.L.; Rivers, D.B.; De Graaf, D.C. Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee. Toxins 2010, 2, 494-516.

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