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Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee
Laboratory of Zoophysiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
Department of Biology, Loyola University Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21210 USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2010; in revised form: 22 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Abstract: Adult females of Nasonia vitripennis inject a venomous mixture into its host flies prior to oviposition. Recently, the entire genome of this ectoparasitoid wasp was sequenced, enabling the identification of 79 venom proteins. The next challenge will be to unravel their specific functions, but based on homolog studies, some predictions already can be made. Parasitization has an enormous impact on hosts physiology of which five major effects are discussed in this review: the impact on immune responses, induction of developmental arrest, increases in lipid levels, apoptosis and nutrient releases. The value of deciphering this venom is also discussed.
Keywords: Nasonia; venom; immunity; phenoloxidase; coagulation; development; lipid; apoptosis; nutrient
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Danneels, E.L.; Rivers, D.B.; De Graaf, D.C. Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee. Toxins 2010, 2, 494-516.
Danneels EL, Rivers DB, De Graaf DC. Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):494-516.
Danneels, Ellen L.; Rivers, David B.; De Graaf, Dirk C. 2010. "Venom Proteins of the Parasitoid Wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent Discovery of an Untapped Pharmacopee." Toxins 2, no. 4: 494-516.