Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2340-2358; doi:10.3390/toxins2102340
Review

Genomic Damage in Endstage Renal Disease—Contribution of Uremic Toxins

1,* email, 2email and 1email
Received: 27 August 2010; in revised form: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 26 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renal Toxicity)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), whether on conservative, peritoneal or hemodialysis therapy, have elevated genomic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and an increased cancer incidence, especially of the kidney. The damage is possibly due to accumulation of uremic toxins like advanced glycation endproducts or homocysteine. However, other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties, which are increased in ESRD, could be involved, such as the blood pressure regulating hormones angiotensin II and aldosterone or the inflammatory cytokine TNF-a. This review provides an overview of genomic damage observed in ESRD patients, focuses on possible underlying causes and shows modulations of the damage by modern dialysis strategies and vitamin supplementation.
Keywords: dialysis; genotoxicity; uremic toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schupp, N.; Heidland, A.; Stopper, H. Genomic Damage in Endstage Renal Disease—Contribution of Uremic Toxins. Toxins 2010, 2, 2340-2358.

AMA Style

Schupp N, Heidland A, Stopper H. Genomic Damage in Endstage Renal Disease—Contribution of Uremic Toxins. Toxins. 2010; 2(10):2340-2358.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schupp, Nicole; Heidland, August; Stopper, Helga. 2010. "Genomic Damage in Endstage Renal Disease—Contribution of Uremic Toxins." Toxins 2, no. 10: 2340-2358.

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