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Toxins, Volume 2, Issue 10 (October 2010), Pages 2333-2489

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Biological and Pathological Studies of Rosmarinic Acid as an Inhibitor of Hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) Venom
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2478-2489; doi:10.3390/toxins2102478
Received: 2 September 2010 / Revised: 5 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA) was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae). The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu). This article [...] Read more.
In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA) was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae). The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu). This article presents mechanistic evidence of RA’s neutralization of the hemorrhagic effects of snake venom. Anti-hemorrhagic activity was assayed by using several kinds of snake venom. Inhibition against fibrinogen hydrolytic and collagen hydrolytic activities of T. flavoviridis venom were examined by SDS-PAGE. A histopathological study was done by microscopy after administration of venom in the presence or absence of RA. RA was found to markedly neutralize venom-induced hemorrhage, fibrinogenolysis, cytotoxicity and digestion of type IV collagen activity. Moreover, RA inhibited both hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrations caused by T. flavoviridis venom in pathology sections. These results demonstrate that RA inhibited most of the hemorrhage effects of venom. These findings indicate that rosmarinic acid can be expected to provide therapeutic benefits in neutralization of snake venom accompanied by heat stability. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Genomic Damage in Endstage Renal Disease—Contribution of Uremic Toxins
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2340-2358; doi:10.3390/toxins2102340
Received: 27 August 2010 / Revised: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 26 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), whether on conservative, peritoneal or hemodialysis therapy, have elevated genomic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and an increased cancer incidence, especially of the kidney. The damage is possibly due to accumulation of uremic toxins like advanced [...] Read more.
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), whether on conservative, peritoneal or hemodialysis therapy, have elevated genomic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and an increased cancer incidence, especially of the kidney. The damage is possibly due to accumulation of uremic toxins like advanced glycation endproducts or homocysteine. However, other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties, which are increased in ESRD, could be involved, such as the blood pressure regulating hormones angiotensin II and aldosterone or the inflammatory cytokine TNF-a. This review provides an overview of genomic damage observed in ESRD patients, focuses on possible underlying causes and shows modulations of the damage by modern dialysis strategies and vitamin supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renal Toxicity)
Open AccessReview Diversity and Impact of Prokaryotic Toxins on Aquatic Environments: A Review
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2359-2410; doi:10.3390/toxins2102359
Received: 21 August 2010 / Revised: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. Some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. As a result, their blooms [...] Read more.
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. Some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. As a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. Quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. These toxins are secondary metabolites, presenting a vast diversity of structures and variants. Most of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites are peptides or have peptidic substructures and are assumed to be synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS), involving peptide synthetases, or NRPS/PKS, involving peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases hybrid pathways. Besides cyanobacteria, other bacteria associated with aquatic environments are recognized as significant toxin producers, representing important issues in food safety, public health, and human and animal well being. Vibrio species are one of the most representative groups of aquatic toxin producers, commonly associated with seafood-born infections. Some enterotoxins and hemolysins have been identified as fundamental for V. cholerae and V. vulnificus pathogenesis, but there is evidence for the existence of other potential toxins. Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli are also water contaminants and are able to produce important toxins after infecting their hosts. Other bacteria associated with aquatic environments are emerging as toxin producers, namely Legionella pneumophila and Aeromonas hydrophila, described as responsible for the synthesis of several exotoxins, enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Furthermore, several Clostridium species can produce potent neurotoxins. Although not considered aquatic microorganisms, they are ubiquitous in the environment and can easily contaminate drinking and irrigation water. Clostridium members are also spore-forming bacteria and can persist in hostile environmental conditions for long periods of time, contributing to their hazard grade. Similarly, Pseudomonas species are widespread in the environment. Since P. aeruginosa is an emergent opportunistic pathogen, its toxins may represent new hazards for humans and animals. This review presents an overview of the diversity of toxins produced by prokaryotic microorganisms associated with aquatic habitats and their impact on environment, life and health of humans and other animals. Moreover, important issues like the availability of these toxins in the environment, contamination sources and pathways, genes involved in their biosynthesis and molecular mechanisms of some representative toxins are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins from Aquatic Organisms)
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Open AccessReview ADAM-15 Disintegrin-Like Domain Structure and Function
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2411-2427; doi:10.3390/toxins2102411
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 13 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ADAM (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase) proteins are a family of transmembrane cell-surface proteins with important functions in adhesion and proteolytic processing in all animals. Human ADAM-15 is the only member of the ADAM family with the integrin binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) [...] Read more.
The ADAM (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase) proteins are a family of transmembrane cell-surface proteins with important functions in adhesion and proteolytic processing in all animals. Human ADAM-15 is the only member of the ADAM family with the integrin binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in its disintegrin-like domain. This motif is also found in most snake venom disintegrins and other disintegrin-like proteins. This unique RGD motif within ADAM-15 serves as an integrin ligand binding site, through which it plays a pivotal role in interacting with integrin receptors, a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. This manuscript will present a review of the RGD-containing disintegrin-like domain structures and the structural features responsible for their activity as antagonists of integrin function in relation to the canonical RGD template. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disintegrins: Structure-Function and Translational Potential)
Open AccessReview Targeting Inflammatory Pathways by Triterpenoids for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2428-2466; doi:10.3390/toxins2102428
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional medicine and diet has served mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and STAT3 have emerged [...] Read more.
Traditional medicine and diet has served mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and STAT3 have emerged as major regulators of inflammation, cellular transformation, and tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, agents that can inhibit NF-κB and STAT3 activation pathways have the potential to both prevent and treat cancer. In this review, we examine the potential of one group of compounds called triterpenes, derived from traditional medicine and diet for their ability to suppress inflammatory pathways linked to tumorigenesis. These triterpenes include avicins, betulinic acid, boswellic acid, celastrol, diosgenin, madecassic acid, maslinic acid, momordin, saikosaponins, platycodon, pristimerin, ursolic acid, and withanolide. This review thus supports the famous adage of Hippocrates, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”. Full article
Open AccessReview Verotoxin-1 Treatment or Manipulation of its Receptor Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) for Reversal of Multidrug Resistance to Cancer Chemotherapy
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2467-2477; doi:10.3390/toxins2102467
Received: 19 September 2010 / Revised: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A major problem with anti-cancer drug treatment is the development of acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) of the tumor cells. Verotoxin-1 (VT-1) exerts its cytotoxicity by targeting the globotriaosylceramide membrane receptor (Gb3), a glycolipid associated with multidrug resistance. Gb3 is overexpressed in many [...] Read more.
A major problem with anti-cancer drug treatment is the development of acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) of the tumor cells. Verotoxin-1 (VT-1) exerts its cytotoxicity by targeting the globotriaosylceramide membrane receptor (Gb3), a glycolipid associated with multidrug resistance. Gb3 is overexpressed in many human tumors and tumor cell lines with inherent or acquired MDR. Gb3 is co-expressed and interplays with the membrane efflux transporter P-gp encoded by the MDR1 gene. P-gp could act as a lipid flippase and stimulate Gb3 induction when tumor cells are exposed to cancer chemotherapy. Recent work has shown that apoptosis and inherent or acquired multidrug resistance in Gb3-expressing tumors could be affected by VT-1 holotoxin, a sub-toxic concentration of the holotoxin concomitant with chemotherapy or its Gb3-binding B-subunit coupled to cytotoxic or immunomodulatory drug, as well as chemical manipulation of Gb3 expression. The interplay between Gb3 and P-gp thus gives a possible physiological approach to augment the chemotherapeutic effect in multidrug resistant tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Therapeutics)

Other

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Open AccessCommentary Comments on “Ochratoxin A: In utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA. Toxins 2010, 2, 1428–1444”—Mis-Citation of Rat Literature to Justify a Hypothetical Role for Ochratoxin A in Testicular Cancer
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2333-2336; doi:10.3390/toxins2102333
Received: 2 September 2010 / Revised: 9 September 2010 / Accepted: 21 September 2010 / Published: 29 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces [...] Read more.
A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces testicular cancer in rats or mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)
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Open AccessReply Response to Comments of Peter G. Mantle
Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2337-2339; doi:10.3390/toxins2102337
Received: 17 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 29 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (24 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The apparently high yield of testis tumors (25%) in rats exposed long-term to Ochratoxin A (OTA) is uninterpretable without data on tumor yield in unexposed rats. Conversely, our demonstration that prenatal exposure to OTA induces DNA adducts in the testes of newborn [...] Read more.
The apparently high yield of testis tumors (25%) in rats exposed long-term to Ochratoxin A (OTA) is uninterpretable without data on tumor yield in unexposed rats. Conversely, our demonstration that prenatal exposure to OTA induces DNA adducts in the testes of newborn mice and the absence of these adducts in the testes of mice not exposed prenatally to OTA, is evidence for the presumptive carcinogenicity of OTA in the testis. Together with recent data showing that prenatal exposure to OTA depresses expression of DMRT1, a tumor suppressor gene in the testis, our findings suggest that OTA may be a cause of testicular cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins)

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