Toxins 2010, 2(10), 2478-2489; doi:10.3390/toxins2102478
Article

Biological and Pathological Studies of Rosmarinic Acid as an Inhibitor of Hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) Venom

Received: 2 September 2010; in revised form: 5 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA) was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae). The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu). This article presents mechanistic evidence of RA’s neutralization of the hemorrhagic effects of snake venom. Anti-hemorrhagic activity was assayed by using several kinds of snake venom. Inhibition against fibrinogen hydrolytic and collagen hydrolytic activities of T. flavoviridis venom were examined by SDS-PAGE. A histopathological study was done by microscopy after administration of venom in the presence or absence of RA. RA was found to markedly neutralize venom-induced hemorrhage, fibrinogenolysis, cytotoxicity and digestion of type IV collagen activity. Moreover, RA inhibited both hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrations caused by T. flavoviridis venom in pathology sections. These results demonstrate that RA inhibited most of the hemorrhage effects of venom. These findings indicate that rosmarinic acid can be expected to provide therapeutic benefits in neutralization of snake venom accompanied by heat stability.
Keywords: rosmarinic acid; snake venom; hemorrhage; metalloproteinase; Argusia argentea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aung, H.T.; Nikai, T.; Komori, Y.; Nonogaki, T.; Niwa, M.; Takaya, Y. Biological and Pathological Studies of Rosmarinic Acid as an Inhibitor of Hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) Venom. Toxins 2010, 2, 2478-2489.

AMA Style

Aung HT, Nikai T, Komori Y, Nonogaki T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Biological and Pathological Studies of Rosmarinic Acid as an Inhibitor of Hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) Venom. Toxins. 2010; 2(10):2478-2489.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aung, Hnin Thanda; Nikai, Toshiaki; Komori, Yumiko; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Niwa, Masatake; Takaya, Yoshiaki. 2010. "Biological and Pathological Studies of Rosmarinic Acid as an Inhibitor of Hemorrhagic Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu) Venom." Toxins 2, no. 10: 2478-2489.

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