Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3163-3183; doi:10.3390/nu5083163
Review

Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence

1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 23 May 2013; in revised form: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and (c) suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.
Keywords: Garcinia mangostana; mangosteen; xanthones; α-mangostin
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [327 KB, uploaded 13 August 2013 10:51 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Gutierrez-Orozco, F.; Failla, M.L. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3163-3183.

AMA Style

Gutierrez-Orozco F, Failla ML. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3163-3183.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Failla, Mark L. 2013. "Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3163-3183.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert