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Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3163-3183; doi:10.3390/nu5083163
Review

Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence

1
 and
1,2,*
1 Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA 2 Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
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Abstract

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and (c) suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.
Keywords: Garcinia mangostana; mangosteen; xanthones; α-mangostin Garcinia mangostana; mangosteen; xanthones; α-mangostin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gutierrez-Orozco, F.; Failla, M.L. Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3163-3183.

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