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Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis
Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2013; in revised form: 9 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Abstract: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to protect against inflammation-induced bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis. We previously reported that DHA, not EPA, inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) in vitro. In this study, we performed gene expression analysis using microarrays to identify genes affected by the DHA treatment during osteoclastogenesis. DHA strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at the late stage. Among the genes upregulated by the sRANKL treatment, 4779 genes were downregulated by DHA and upregulated by the EPA treatment. Gene ontology analysis identified sets of genes related to cell motility, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling and cell morphogenesis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that DC-STAMP, an essential gene for the cell fusion process in osteoclastogenesis, and other osteoclast-related genes, such as Siglec-15, Tspan7 and Mst1r, were inhibited by DHA.
Keywords: polyunsaturated fatty acid; docosahexaenoic acid; osteoclast
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Akiyama, M.; Nakahama, K.-I.; Morita, I. Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3151-3162.
Akiyama M, Nakahama K-I, Morita I. Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3151-3162.
Akiyama, Masako; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo. 2013. "Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3151-3162.